|Recording and Using Indigenous Knowledge: A Manual (IIRR, 1996, 211 p.)|
|Part 2 Recording and assessment methodologies|
|Observation and interviewing|
A comprehensive, in-depth investigation of a situation, a sequence of activities, or a procedure within its natural setting.
To understand a situation, a sequence of activities, or a procedure to learn what happened, how it happened, and why it happened.
Tape recorder end microphone
Video camera and accessories
1 Identify topic or focuswhat you want to study.
2 Design the study
- Select the appropriate social unit. Will you study the individual, group, institution, process, activity, or system?
- Decide whether you will study a single caseone person, group, institution, or processor a multiple casetwo or more persons, groups, etc.
- Choose what you want to find out and how to observe and measure it.
- Select the site or sites for study.
- Set a timetable for gathering field data.
3 Prepare an observation guidea list of things to observeand an interview guidequestions to ask.
4 Seek cooperation from people on site in advance.
5 Gather information by interviewing people or by observing and using other methods described in this manual.
6 Record the information in a notebook, field diary, or logbook. Do this daily or according to a set schedule. You might find a tape recorder and camera useful for recording data.
7 Validate or cross-check the information through multiple sources. For instance, get information from several informants, or check findings with published documents or maps, or by measuring them directly.
8 Analyze the information.
- Identify themes, variables which are related.
- Look for strong evidence or corroboration.
- Rule out competing explanations.
9 Validate findings with the informants or other community members.
10 Prepare a report.
- Make sure that there is a narrative flowan easily understandable pattern or progression. For instance, you could describe how things began, what led to what, and how events are linked.
11 Give a copy of the case study to the community.
- are useful in investigating processes, such as documenting an activity from first to last step (e.g., rice production from land preparation to harvesting and processing).
- can be used to investigate changes over time (e.g., changes in farm practices from Year 1 to Year 5).
- are typically participatory and involve experential learningthey can lead to exchange of information between the researcher and the participants.
- emphasize the insider's perspective over the outsider's perspective.
Compiled by Perpetuo C. Librando and Eblas L. Blancas Sources: Bennett 1983 Yin 1984