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close this bookCommunity Emergency Preparedness: A Manual for Managers and Policy-Makers (WHO, 1999, 141 p.)
close this folderChapter 5 Training and education
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentA systematic approach to training
View the documentPublic education
View the documentSummary
View the documentReferences

A systematic approach to training

The systems approach to training is a process for developing appropriate, effective, and efficient training programmes. Table 26 summarizes the steps in the process.

Analysing training needs

The objectives of the training needs analysis in emergency management are to:

- describe allocated tasks;
- determine those tasks that an organization’s personnel are capable of undertaking;
- determine which personnel require further training.

For any task there are desirable levels of skills and knowledge that will ensure that it will be performed correctly. Techniques for determining desirable levels of knowledge and skill may include (1):

- identifying competence required;
- vulnerability assessment;
- emergency planning;
- exercises;
- analysis of emergency operations.

Techniques for determining existing levels of knowledge and skill may include (1):

- skills audit;
- exercises;
- analysis of emergency operations.

A comparison between desirable and existing levels of knowledge and skill will indicate the training needs.

Table 26. The systems approach to traininga




1. Analyse training need

· The job is analysed and task performances, together with task conditions and standards, are listed
· Training needs, and their priorities, are listed

· A list of task performances, conditions, and standards
· A schedule of training and priorities

2. Design training

· Training is designed to suit the results of job analysis
· Training objectives and assessments are written and placed in logical sequence

· Sequenced set of training objectives and tests

3. Develop instruction

· Instructional methods and media are chosen
· Course programme and content are compiled
· The instruction is trialled and amended until it is successful

· A programme of instruction has been successfully trialled

4. Conduct instruction

· The course is conducted
· Tests are administered
· Initial problems are remedied

· Trainees who have achieved course objectives
· A course modified as necessary

5. Validate training

· Problem areas from 4 and 5 are identified by analysing:

· Validated and successful training

- efficiency - whether best use
- was made of resources to
- achieve objectives
- effectiveness - whether skills
- and knowledge were increased
- appropriateness - the relevance
- of the training received to the
- job

· Training is modified or updated as

· necessary

aReproduced from reference 2 by permission of the publisher, Emergency Management Australia (formerly Natural Disasters Organisation).

Designing training

Training should be based on needs. To design appropriate training it is necessary to develop training objectives that are mandatory, measurable, realistic, and achievable. Training objectives describe the performance required in tasks, and therefore describe what a course participant should be able to do. For example, training objectives in an emergency management course may be based on participants learning to:

- explain how to form an appropriate emergency planning group;

- lead a group in identifying hazards;

- apply a number of methods for describing hazards, the community, and community vulnerability.

Assessment can take a number of forms, such as:

- observation in the workplace by a supervisor;

- demonstration in a structured and practical manner;

- project-based assessment where a relevant project is undertaken on an unsupervised basis;

- simulation of the task, including role-play;

- structured tests (either written multiple-choice, short answer, extended answer, or oral);

- continual assessment of work-based performance.

Developing and conducting instruction

A training or education plan should be developed containing:

- a summary of training and education objectives;
- a programme;
- allocation of responsibility;
- resource requirements;
- delivery modes;
- assessment, validation, and evaluation processes.

Validating training

To validate training, instruments should be developed and implemented for:

- assessment;
- validation;
- evaluation.

Assessment is the measurement of an individual’s current knowledge, skills, and competence, and is a baseline for measuring the effectiveness of training. Techniques may include practical assessment, on-the-job assessment, and examination. Assessment can be performed before and after training.

Validation is the comparison between the outcomes achieved by training and education and the desired outcomes, which determines the appropriateness of the training.

Evaluation is the process of determining the efficiency and effectiveness of a training and education plan. Part of the process is the comparison of outputs and objectives.