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close this bookPrimary School Agriculture: Volume I: Pedagogy (GTZ, 1985, 144 p.)
close this folderPart II: Teaching methods
close this folder2. The structure of teaching units
View the document2.1 Breaking down a scheme of work into units
View the document2.2 Defining objectives for the sub-units
View the document2.3 Indoor and outdoor activities in a sub-unit

2.1 Breaking down a scheme of work into units

Farming a crop or a crop association is a teaching project which for some crops extends over a whole academic year, sometimes more, for others over one or two terms. Such a project must be divided into smaller units, e.g. farm preparation, farm care, harvesting, storage and processing, according to the seasons. These units in turn consist of sub-units built around one practical activity - practical work or observation-. Sub-units are made up of different lessons, some of them pure class-room lessons, some of them outdoor activities.


time needed


determined by growth cycle of crop

e.g. Maize Farming - Planning - Implementation - End-of-year-revision


varies with duration of main farm operations

e.g. farm preparation- planting - farm care - harvesting - storage, processing, marketing


4-6 lessons

built around a practical activity, e.g. planting, weeding, observation of plant growth, of insect attacks etc.


40-55 minutes

types of lessons: preparation of practical activity, practical activity itself, follow-up lessons

We shall concentrate on the sub-units and on the individual lessons. The larger units are given in the schemes of work. They require less detailed planning than the sub-units and the actual lessons. The diagram illustrates how units, sub-units and lessons fit together.

The basic element in this approach is the sub-unit. Lessons in a farm project can only rarely be regarded as self-contained, independent blocks. The sub-units, on the other hand, with their sequence of classroom and outdoor activities can be regarded as relatively self-contained, ending with some conclusions at least.