|CARE Food Manual (CARE , 1998, 355 p.)|
|Chapter 11 - Food Distribution To Sites|
|II. Designing a Transportation Plan|
If there is only a fixed number of transport vehicles, trucks go to distribution sites and return to warehouses to pick up food for their next trip. CARE or counterpart staff must determine the amount of time it will take trucks to load food, go to one or more sites, and come back to load for their next trip. This is known as the Turn-Around Time (TAT).
Factors to consider in TAT are:
· Distance to the distribution
· Condition of the roads and bridges, especially during rainy season
· Speed of vehicles
· Loading time at the source
· Unloading time at the destination.
For multiple deliveries TAT should be calculated for each destination.
The example program delivers food to three regions with sites at various distances from the warehouse. Some distribution sites are located within 10 km (Region 3) whereas others are as far as 200 km (Region 1) from the warehouse.
The distance from the warehouse to the distribution sites ranges from 140 to 200 kilometers. Because of the very poor condition of the roads, each truck averages approximately 15 to 20 kph. A half hour is required to load the truck and another half hour required for the unloading at each of the delivery points. It takes between ten and twelve hours to reach a destination and complete unloading at sites in Region 1. It takes another day for the truck to return to the warehouse. The TAT for Region 1 is thus two days.
The distance to the sites from the warehouse is 80-140 kilometers and the roads are in better repair. Trucks can travel at an average speed of 45 kph. Including loading and unloading times, between three and five hours are needed to reach distribution sites. The TAT for Region 2 is thus one day.
The distance is relatively small (10-80 kilometers) and because the sites are closer to urban areas, the roads are in fairly good condition. Trucks are able to travel at an average speed of 50 kph. Sites also tend to be closer together, with fewer numbers of project participants per site. Loading and unloading times are half that of the other regions. The TAT for Region 3 is thus only half a day.