|Blending of New and Traditional Technologies - Case Studies (ILO - WEP, 1984, 312 p.)|
|ANNEX: SELECTED EXAMPLES OF EXPERIMENTS AND PROJECTS*|
46. *Production of Malaria vaccine (Australia and Papua New Guinea). The
Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne in conjunction with the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research has utilised the recombinant DNA technique to produce a vaccine against malaria.
The new technique involves the production of protein antigens which have been tested against blood sera of people in malaria-prone areas of Papua New Guinea. Extensive testing is to be carried out by the World Health Organisation.38
47. *Cloning of tea (Malawi). The Tea Research Foundation of Malawi is undertaking research with a view to raise the yields of small tea holders and thereby raise rural living standards. In a major innovation the Foundation has developed clones and methods of propagating their high quality including characteristics such as pest resistance which would be particularly important to small farmers. UNFSSTD is supporting the Foundation with a research grant for this endeavour.
48. *Nitrogen fixation on rice paddy soils (International Rice Testing and Improvement Programme). The above UNDP-financed programme aims to assist paddy rice growers to reduce their dependence on artificial nitrogen fertilisers which have become too expensive for poor farmers in developing countries. The role of microorganisms in fixing nitrogen as part of the process of natural plant nutrition has been studied.39
49. *Production of ethanol from cellulosic material (Philippines). The
Philippine Government requested UNIDO to assist in a project intended to investigate the potential of ethanol production from cellulosic materials. This project consists of three stages:
(i) a technical and economic study of the feasibility of ethanol production from cellulosic materials on a commercial scale and the establishment of a pilot plant;
(ii) preparation of detailed designs for the pilot plant; and
(iii) construction of the pilot plant.
The techno-economic study has been completed. The potential feedstocks studied were bagasse, rice hull, coconut husks, bananas, wood wastes from logging operations and forest industries and wood from fast-growing tree plantations.
Hydrolysis tests have been performed and it is proposed that a pilot plant be set up to process these materials. The preliminary design on the pilot plant provides for versatility to serve important research and development needs.
Besides the basic enzymatic cellulose to ethanol production it can be used to investigate acid hydrolysis, animal feed production tests, research for production of other enzymes (e.g., amylolytic enzymes for hydrolysis of starch) and hydrolysis and fermentation equipment. The total cost of the pilot plant is estimated at US$ 2.1 million. This includes training costs of four to six persons for six to twelve months abroad.40
50. *Ethanol from molasses (Brazil). An ethanol plant at Sao Luis distillery has been started in Brazil in collaboration with Alfa-Laval of Sweden. Ethanol is produced from a feedstock of molasses and cane juice syrup.
51. *Rum waste for fuel (Canada). A distillery in Nova Scotia (Canada) has tested a system producing methane from waste mollasses from rum production. It is expected to turn a 27 million litre disposal problem into an energy resource.
52. *Banana ethanol (Jamaica). A contract has been awarded to D. G. Malcolm and Associates, (a Company based in Saskatoon) to investigate the prospect of ethanol production from agricultural by-products, e.g. banana, citrus fruit and coffee pulp, in Jamaica where at present 20 to 40 per cent of the banana crop is rejected because the fruit is marked, undersize or otherwise unsuitable for export.