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close this bookTraining Programme for Women Entrepreneurs in the Food-processing Industry - Volume II (UNIDO, 1985, 286 p.)
close this folderChapter 3 Fruit and Vegetable Products
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Fruit Pulp
View the document3.2 Fruit Juice
View the document3.3 Squash
View the document3.4 Cordial
View the document3.5 Syrup
View the document3.6 Nectar
View the document3.7 Wine
View the document3.8 Spirit
View the document3.9 Vinegar
View the document3.10 Fruit in Syrup
View the document3.11 Preserves (jams, jellies)
View the document3.12 Preserves (marmalade)
View the document3.13 Vegetable Products
View the document3.14 Dry Salted Vegetables
View the document3.15 Brined Vegetables
View the document3.16 Pickles
View the document3.17 Sauces

3.12 Preserves (marmalade)




Procedures to produce pulp shown in Diagram 3.1. Small scale equipment is shown in Fig. (7) for citrus fruits.


Through a metal/plastic fine mesh sieve and then through a fine cloth filter to produce a crystal clear juice.

Mix ¬ sugar
Mix ¬ acid
Mix ¬ pectin
Mix ¬ peels

Add sugar (weight depends on recipe) and if necessary mix in correct quantites of citric acid (to obtain pH 3.0-3.3) and, for some fruits, pectin (approximately 2% by weight). Precise formulation found by experimentation. Thinly sliced citrus peels are boiled in 60% sugar syrup for 15 min. and stored in the syrup for a minimum of 24 hours. For longer storage, up to six months, a chemical preservative (e.g. 1.8% sodium benzoate can be used).


Heat quickly in stainless steel pan, with constant stirring to prevent burning, until soluble solids content reaches 68-72% as measured by refractometer (Fig. 9).

Fill/seal ¬ jars + lids

Jars and lids sterilised by boiling in water for minimum of 10 min. Stir to ensure even distribution of peels and hot fill while jars are hot to prevent breakage. Small lid sealers available (Fig. 11).


Cool in air or more rapidly in a bottle cooler (Fig. 8).