|Small-Scale Processing of Fish (ILO - WEP, 1982, 140 p.)|
|CHAPTER II. SALTING - DRYING - FERMENTING|
|V. METHODS OF PREPARATION|
Only fresh fish make a good product. Mackerels, tunas, etc. should be bled at sea and, if possible, all fish should be iced at sea. The drying/salting of fish should be carried out according to the following steps:
- To scale and split the fish in the way described in Section I. To remove the head before splitting unless it increases the retail value of the processed fish.
- To remove all but the tail third of the back bone.
- To clean carefully the fish by removing all guts, liver, gills, membranes, etc.
- To score to skin with care in order to avoid cutting through the flesh.
- To wash the fish by soaking in a 10% brine for half an hour.
- To drain the fish.
- To dry salt the fish in a shallow box, using the appropriate amount of salt, with more salt on the thick parts of fish than on the thin parts; to fill all scores and rub the salt in thoroughly. One part of salt to three parts of fish by weight is recommended for appropriate salting.
- Saturated brine with an excess of salt may be used as an alternative to dry salting. In this procedure, even piles are made by placing the fish skin side down in the salting vat. The top layer should be skin side up. If brine does not cover the fish within 3-4 hours, to add saturated brine. To place a weight on the fish so that they are below the surface of the brine and to cover the vat.
- To leave the fish in salt for about 12 hours. Fish size, market preferences, weather and working conditions will affect the length of the salting period.
- To wash the fish in 10% brine or sea water, in order to remove all salt crystals. To drain and set to dry. If drying conditions are good, it is advisable to dry the fish in the shade instead of the open sun.
- To leave the fish on the drying racks during the first night. Thereafter, to remove and pile up the fish under pressure each night until drying is complete. Greater pressure and longer press times may be used towards the end of the drying period.
- To continue alternative drying and pressing until no further weight is lost. To store and bale the fish.