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close this bookBasic Techiques of Blacksmithing: A Manual for Trainers (Peace Corps, 1982, 102 p.)
close this folderDay 3
View the documentSession: 9. Eye hook and link: technology transfer
View the documentSession: 10. Forging rings
View the documentSession: 11. Welding practices: forge brazing
View the documentSession: 12. Open workshop: mid-program review

Session: 11. Welding practices: forge brazing

Total Time: 1½ hours


* To identify and discuss various types of welding processes
* To discuss welding processes used by local blacksmiths
* To forge braze rings

Materials: Forged rings from Session 10, flux, brass rods, an assortment of examples of various types of welds, electric arc, gas forge, flux spoon, etc.

Trainer Notes

Prior to this session, it will be necessary to assemble and prepare for distribution a collection of examples of various types of welds (see Trainer Notes, Step 2).


Step 1. (5 minutes)
Briefly explain the session objectives and ask participants to define welding.

Trainer Notes

* Point out that there are several ways to weld but that, essentially, the process is one of bonding metal together using heat.

* Also, explain that brazing and soldering are welding methods that require the use of a third metal as a binder.

Step 2. (15 minutes)
Distribute examples of various types of welds and ask the participants to describe the methods used in each case and to discuss why one method may be preferable to another.

Trainer Notes

* Among the examples distributed, be certain to include demonstration samples of forge welding, gas and electric welding, brazing and soldering.

* In discussing each type of weld, ask participants who have had experience with welding to:

- identify and name the type of weld
- describe the process involved and the equipment necessary
- give examples of how and where each type is most often used:
- discuss fluxes, bonding metals and temperatures
- explain why one type of weld may be preferable to another
- Describe various kinds of joints (i.e., lap,, but, vee)

Step 3. (10 minutes)
Ask participants to describe forge welding and brazing processes they have seen local blacksmiths use.

Trainer Notes

* Some questions to stimulate discussion include:

- What similarities/differences exist between processes used by local blacksmiths and those discussed here?
- What cultural and/or economic factors influence the welding practices of local blacksmiths?

Step 4. (10 minutes)
Explain that forge brazing is the type of welding which will be practiced during this session and ask participants to discuss its potential use by local blacksmiths.

Trainer Notes

* Remind participants of the discussion from the previous steps and have them describe and explain why braze welding could be a viable technique for local blacksmiths.

* Ask them to identify some local uses for braze welds (e.g., repairing).

Step 5. (15 minutes)
Demonstrate the procedures involved in braze welding a ring.

Trainer Notes

* During the demonstration, it is important to point out and explain the following techniques:

- cleaning of joint with wire brush after heating and before fluxing
- proper control of heat
- placement of flux
- use of the flux spoon
- placement and handling of brass rod
- testing the weld for strength
- determining when brazing heat has been reached
- results of over-heating

* Before proceeding to the next step, be certain that participants understand the procedures and techniques involved.

Step 6. (25 minutes)
Have the participants go to their work stations and forge braze the lap rings that they made in the previous session.

Trainer Notes

Provide assistance and suggestions whenever necessary.

Step 7. (10 minutes)
Reconvene the group and have them discuss the brazing activity.

Trainer Notes

* Have work groups describe any difficulties which they experienced and share ideas about ways to overcome them.

* Depending on the amount of time remaining in the session, it may also be useful to demonstrate how forge brazing can be used to repair a broken tool or implement.