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close this bookThe Global Greenhouse Regime. Who Pays? (UNU, 1993, 382 p.)
close this folderPart II Resource transfers
close this folder7 Insuring against sea level rise
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInsurability of losses
View the documentOil pollution
View the documentNuclear damage
View the documentImplications
View the documentThe insurance scheme proposed by AOSIS
View the documentThe Climate Change Convention
View the documentNotes and references
View the documentAppendix: Scheme proposed by AOSIS for inclusion in the Climate Change Convention

Notes and references

1 The IPCC First Assessment Report, August 1990; see also R Warrick and A Rahman, 'Future Sea Level Rise, Environmental and Socio-Political Considerations,' in I Mintzer (ed), Confronting Climate Change, Risks, Implications, and Responses, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1992, pp 97-112

2 Report of IPCC Working Group II, Policymakers' Summary, June 1990

3 IPCC Working Group I, Scientific Assessment, Climate Change 1992, The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp 5-19

4 IPCC First Assessment Report, Overview, August 1990, p 8

5 'Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise', Report of Coastal Zone Management Subgroup of IPCC Working Group II, June 1990, p 5

6 Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft,'Windstorm', Munich, 1990, p 111

7 ibid. p 4

8 Prudential Insurance v. IRC [1904] 2 KB 658 at p 613; see also Soya GmbH Kommanditgesellschaft v. White [1980] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 491,[1982] I Lloyd's Rep. 136, [1983] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 122

9 Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft, 'Flood Inundation', Munich, 1973, p 7 10 Report of IPCC Working Group I, Policymakers' Summary, p 23

11 J Hindle 'Warming Signals', The Review, March 1989, p 35

12 Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft, 'Windstorm', Munich, 1990 p 4 13 J Hindle, op. cit. (note 11)

14 G Dimmock, 'The Reinsurers' View', in 'The Greenhouse Effect - Implications for Insurers', Insurance and Reinsurance Research Group Limited, February 1989, p 119 and J Hindle, op. cit. citing C T Suthons, 'Frequency of Occurrence of Abnormally High Sea Levels on the East and South Coasts of England, 1963' 15 Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft, 'Windstorm' and 'Flood Inundation', op. cit.; J Hindle and G Dimmock, op. cit.; F Nierhaus and G Berz 'Natural Catastrophes - Elements of Risk', The Review, December 1989, p 17; A F Dlugolecki, 'Natural Catastrophes arising from the Greenhouse Effect', Journal of the Isurance Institute of London, 1990, vol. 78, p 49; S Hitchcock, 'Changing Weather Patterns and their Effect on Reinsurers', Paper to Insurance Institute of London, March 1989

16 Ibid.
17 Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft, 'Windstorm', op. cit. (note 6) p 11

18 Following disastrous floods in Queen Island, New South Wales and Victoria in 1990, the President of the Insurance Council of Australia was reported as stating that few householders in flood-prone areas could obtain insurance cover for flood damage and that the Australian Government should 're-think the question of catastrophe reinsurance'. The National Insurance Brokers' Association of Australia was also reported as having called upon the Federal Government to provide catastrophe reinsurance above whatever level is freely available in the private insurance market: The Re Report, London Issue 9019,17 September 1990

19 Mans Jacobsson, Director, International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, 'The International Conventions on Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage' in Oil Pollution Claims and Liability, Legal Studies and Services Limited, London, November 1989; for a summary of the IOPC, see M Jacobson, 'The International Convention on Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage,' Siren, (UN Environment Programme, Nairobi), no 42, September 1989, pp 20-24

20 Ibid. p 8

21 Article 1.6 of the 1984 Protocol to the Civil Liability Convention
22 P Sands, Chernobyl: Law and Communication, Grotius Publications, Cambridge 1988, p 51
23 Ibid. where the text of the Convention is set out at p 53
24 Ibid. where the text of the Convention is set out at p 68
25 Ibid. p 96; the text of the Convention is set out at p 97

26 Ministerial Declaration at the Second World Climate Conference, Geneva, November 1990, paragraphs 26 and 27