|Workshop to Produce an Information Kit on Farmer-proven. Integrated Agriculture-aquaculture Technologies (IIRR, 1992, 119 p.)|
Rice-fish farming has a long history in Indonesia. In general, farmers have developed the systems that are now existing. The widely practiced rice-fish systems in irrigated areas of West Java are: minapadl, penyelang and fish palawija A special system called sawak tambak also exists in the coastal areas of East Java.
Rice-fish systems in Indonesia
Fish produced from ricefields are mostly seed fish for restocking in grow out systems, such as floating net and bamboo cages, running water (concrete tanks) and irrigation canal systems.
Rice varieties which are proven to yield high with fish during wet season such as IR 64 and during dry season such as Cillwung are planted. Planting distance in a thoroughly prepared land is 20 x 20 cm, 22 x 22 cm or 25 x 25 cm. In West Java, fertilizers used (and their rates of application in kg/ha) are: urea,200; triple superphosphate,100; potassium chloride, 100; and ammonium sulfate, 50. Water level is kept low during the filleting stage of rice. It is gradually raised to 10-15 cm throughout the rice growth.
Common carp weighing 15-25 9 are stocked at 2,500-3,000/ha 7-10 days after rice planting. A center or cross-trench occupies about 2% of the total rice field area. Harvesting is done by draining the field slowly after a culture period of 40-60 days. Within this period, the fish attain 50-100 9, the size desired for stocking cages and running water culture systems.
This is the culture of fish in between the first and second rice crops. Fish culture period is shorter than palawija system. A portion of the ricefield with rice stubbles is immediately stocked with common carp, while preparing the remaining portion for the dry season rice crop.
Stocking size varies: 5-8 or 8-12 cm or 15-25 9, depending on availability. Stocking rate is 2,0004,000/ha. Water depth is 10-20 cm. Fish are harvested after 30-40 days. This short period may not produce the desired size for growout in cages and running water systems, especially if stocked small. However, growout operators also buy small fish seeds if supply is scarce. The unsold small fish are restocked in the following dry season crop.
Rice-fish cropping pattern in sawah tamak
Prepared by: CATALINO DELA CRUZ
FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICU LTURE-AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)