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close this bookHIV in Pregnancy: A Review (UNAIDS, 1999, 67 p.)
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Open this folder and view contentsAntenatal care
View the documentCare during labour and delivery
View the documentPostpartum care
View the documentCare of neonates


The management of HIV positive women during pregnancy is multifaceted, combining medical and obstetrical management with counselling and social support. The woman's social and psychological concerns may be as important as her need for medical care. Ideally, a team approach with health workers, counsellors and support groups should be used358,359,360,361,362.

In all cases, the management in pregnancy, including antiretroviral treatment, should be seen as only a part of the continuum of care for the mother and child360,363,364,290. Ongoing care may be undertaken at home, within the primary health care services, at hospitals, or at specialist clinics, depending upon the individual needs and available facilities365. The following discussion highlights some of the management issues for HIV positive pregnant women, and does not provide detailed guidelines. Diagnostic procedures and medical management will be dependent upon the available resources and each country should develop appropriate recommendations for their own situation.