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close this bookReversing the Spiral - The Population, Agriculture, and Environment Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa (WB, 1994, 320 p.)
close this folder3. The demographic dimension
View the documentThe lagging demographic transition
View the documentFertility and agriculture: Part of the Nexus?
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix to chapter 3


1. the DHS Program, a follow-up to the World Fertility Survey (WFS), is a nineyear program to assist developing countries in implementing fifty-nine demographic and health surveys.

2. The TFR has declined most dramatically in Mauritius, falling from 4.8 in the mid-1960s to 13 by 1990 (Table A-2).

3. Detailed analysis of the DHS data is still in progress, and this study could therefore not yet draw fully on the information collected under the DHS Program. Note also that the data in Table A-2, which represent the "best estimates" currently available in the World Bank's demographic statistical data base, do not in all cases fully reflect the most recent survey findings obtained under the DHS Program.

4. Under the WFS, national surveys were undertaken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Using these data, Cochrane and Farid (1989) carried out a comparative analysis to ascertain simiIarities and differences in fertility and underlying causal factors between SSA and other regions; when they undertook this study, WFS date were available for ten SSA countries.

5. Interestingly, when efficient and inefficient methods were considered together, urban use was higher than rural use in only three of the ten countries for which WFS data were available (Lesotho, Nigeria, Sudan). Traditional practices of fertility control such as breastfeeding, might have been abandoned in the course of modernization, while modern methods were not yet adopted widely enough to offset this This explanation is frequently given for the small differentials in fertility across socioeconomic groups, but the available data on breastfeeding practices in Sub-Saharan Africa do not support this conjecture. Breastfeeding does not decline rapidly with increasing education (Cochrane end Farid 1989).

6. The differential is higher in the case of child mortality, due to high mortality in the second and third years of life, following weaning. Toddler and child mortality rates are two to three times greater in SSA than in Latin America and Asia. Toddler and child mortality at all levels of mother's education are higher than in other regions (Cochrane and Farid 1989; see also Table A-3).

7. This is suggested, though not necessarily proved, by the statistical analysis summarized in the Appendix to Chapter 3.

8. Among the matrilineal Akan in Ghana, for example, it is frequently observed that a son employed in an urban job is very reluctant to have remittances he sends to his father invested in improving the father's farm ventures because these investments will, upon the father's death, benefit the son's maternal uncles or cousins, rather than himself.