Cover Image
close this bookThe Courier N 145 - May - June 1994- Dossier : European Union: the Way forward - Country Report: Ethiopia (EC Courier, 1994, 104 p.)
close this folderCountry report
close this folderEthiopia: Emerging from a long Dark Age
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPresident Meles Zenawi
View the documentAn interview with opposition leader Dr Beyene Petros
View the documentReaping the peace dividend
View the documentMotivating the peasant
View the documentReviving private business and industry
View the documentFreedom of the press - A contribution to the democratic process
View the documentProfile
View the documentEU-Ethiopia Cooperation: the largest support programme in the ACP



Area: 1.13 million km²

Population: 53m. Growth rate 3.5% p.a. Rural population 85%.

Average life expectancy :46 years

Infant mortality: 125 per 1000 live births

Literacy rate: Estimated at between 23% and 62% (including Eritrea)

Capital: Addis Ababa (population estimated at 2.5m)

Other main towns: Harar, Dire Dawa, Makelle, Dessie

Religion: Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Animist

Languages: Amharic, Oromo, Tigre, Somali, Afar and numerous others; English widely taught

Political structure: Unitary republic with 14 regions. The Transitional Charter approved in July 1991 provides for a Council of Representatives of 87 members and a Council of Ministers. Elections for regional governments were held in June 1992. National elections are due in June 1994.

Head of State: Meles Zenawi, leader of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front and President of the Transitional Government

Currency: Birr(B6.97 = ECU1,B5.13 = $1 in April 1994)

Inflation rate: (January 1994) 10%

GDP: $6.0 billion (1991)

Real GDP growth: 7.6% (1992/3 fiscal year starting on 7 July)

GNP per capita: $120 (1991)

Principal exports: Coffee (62%), hides and skins (21 %), gold, vegetable products (1990; includes Eritrea)

Principal imports: Machinery (44.5%), motor vehicles (28%), crude petroleum (27.5%) (1989; includes Eritrea)

Total value of exports: $177m (1992; includes Eritrea)

Total value of imports: $1.03 billion (1992; includes Eritrea)

Public finances: 1993/4 budget:

Expenditures: 8.4bn birr, broken down as follows:

- operating expenditure B4.578bn, investment B3.847bn, or
- central government B5.3bn, regional governments B3.1bn, or
- B1.49bn administrative and general services;
B3.67bn economic services; B1.74bn social services;
B1.57bn miscellaneous expenditure.


B3.8bn from revenues, indirect taxes, import duties, government investment;
B2.12bn from foreign cash grants, counterpart funds and technical assistance;
B2.3bn from capital revenues: local sources, foreign loans, counterpart funds.