EEC Summit in Dublin
Heads of State and Government of the 12 Member States of the
Community met at their customary end-of-presidency summit on 25 and 26 June.
Since Ireland held the presidency of the EC for the first six months of 1990,
the meeting took place there - in the capital, Dublin - under the chairmanship
of the Irish Taoiseach (Prime Minister), Charles Haughey.
As always on such occasions, the scope of their discussions was
wide. Important decisions were made on the holding of two intergovernmental
conferences - one on economic and monetary union (to be opened in Rome on 13
December) and one on political union (on 14 December). In both cases the aim was
to achieve ratification of results by the end of 1992.
The Council also requested the Commission to consult with the
Soviet government with a view to preparing, as a matter of urgency, proposals
for short-term credit and support for longer-term structural adjustment
It also heard a report from the German Federal Chancellor on
progress towards German unification. It welcomed the signing of the Inter-German
State Treaty, which will facilitate and speed up the integration of the
territory of the German Demogratic Republic into the Community.
On the environment, the Council agreed that a more enlightened
and a more systematic approach needed to be adopted as a matter of urgency. Mr
Haughey welcomed the adoption of what he termed a major declaration
on the environment, in which guidelines for future action were set out. The
Commission was asked to prepare an appropriate programme to deal with the threat
to tropical rain-forests, in consultation with the countries concerned, in
The question of South African sanctions was debated and, having
paid homage to the roles played by both President de Klerk and Mr Nelson Mandela
in the efforts to bring about changes in South Africa, the Twelve affirmed their
willingness to gradually relax the pressure exerted on the South African
authorities (see declaration below). On sub-Saharan Africa, the Council
expressed serious concern about the overall economic situation and about
Africas indebtedness in particular.
Finally, the Twelve agreed to renew Mr Jacques Delors
mandate as President of the Commission for a further two years.
Declaration on Southern Africa
The European Council welcomes the important changes that
have taken place in Southern Africa since it met in Strasbourg.
The European Council warmly welcomes the successful conclusion
of the process of bringing Namibia to independence with a constitution based on
multi-party democracy and human rights. The European Community and its Member
States will continue to give aid and support to the people of Namibia as they
build their new country, in particular in the framework of the new Lomonvention. They welcome the talks which have taken place between the Angolan
Government and UNITA under Portuguese auspices. They look forward to the
resolution of the conflict in Angola and also of that in Mozambique through
The European Council greatly welcomes the significant changes
that have taken place in South Africa in recent months: the release of Nelson
Mandela and of other political prisoners; the unbanning of political
organisations; the substantial lifting of the state of emergency; the commitment
by the Government to abolish the apartheid system and to create a democratic and
non-racial South Africa, and its willingness to enter into negotiations on the
future of South Africa with the representatives of the majority.
They pay tribute to the parts played in bringing about these
changes by President F.W. de Klerk and Mr Nelson Mandela. The efforts of
President F.W. de Klerk to bring about a new era in South Africa are testimony
to his foresight and courage. Mr Nelson Mandela, a prisoner for 27 years, has
inspired millions of South Africans opposed to apartheid and thereby amply
demonstrated his qualities of statesmanship, qualities that will be required in
the challenging period ahead in South Africa.
The objective of the European Community and its Member States is
the complete dismantlement of the apartheid system by peaceful means and
without delay, and its replacement by a united, non-racial ant! democratic state
in which all people shall enjoy common and equal citizenship and where respect
for universally recognised human rights is guaranteed. They welcome the joint
commitment between the South African Government and the ANC in the Groote Schunr
Minute to stability and a peaceful process of negotiations. They call on all
parties in South Africa to endorse this objective. It is the intention of the
European Community and its member States to encourage, by every means available
to them, the early opening of negotiations leading to the creation of a united,
non-racial and democratic South Africa.
Negotiations on a new South Africa should get under way without
delay. The substantial progress made towards removal of the obstacles
represented by the state of emergency and the detenton of political prisoners is
welcome. The European Council looks forward to early agreement between the South
African Government and the ANC on the conditions in which exiles can return and
on the definition of political prisoners leading to their release. The European
Council calls on all parties to remove the remaining obstacles to peaceful
negotiations and to refrain from violence or advocacy of violence.
The European Council fully recognises that a new post-apartheid
South Africa should be able to avail itself of all the economic resources,
including access to external finance, required to ensure its future prosperity
and the full development of all its people. South Africa faces acute
socio-economic problems, especially in the areas of employment, education and
housing, against a background of a high rate of population growth. These
problems have been greatly exacerbated by apartheid. Positive action is needed
to rectify imbalances.
Through the programme of positive measures, the Community has,
for a number of years, been providing assistance to the victims of apartheid. In
the light of the recent developments in South Africa and as a strong signal of
political support to those disadvantaged by apartheid and of the will to
contribute to a new socio-economic balance, the Community intends to release the
funds being made available under its programme and to adapt the programme to the
needs of the new situation, including those connected with the return and
resettlement of exiles. It welcomes the positive attitude being displayed by all
parties, including the new South African Government, to such programmes.
At its meeting in Strasbourg last December, the European Council
decided that the Community and its Member States would maintain the pressure
that they exert on the South African authorities in order to promote the
profound and irreversible changes which they have repeatedly stood for. The
European Council affirms its willingness to consider a gradual relaxation of
this pressure when there is further clear evidence that the process of change
already initiated continues in the direction called for at Strasbourg.
The European Parliaments Development Committee met in
mid-June to discuss both the 1991 budget for development and a number of issues
of direct or indirect interest in the context of the Communitys
development policy or programmes, including the Uruguay Round, German
unification, relations with Central America, NGOs, the conservation of tropical
forests and the protection of African elephants.
In addition, the Commissioner for Development, Mr Marin,
addressed MEPs, informing them of the Councils approval of further
assistance to the victims of apartheid and of its support for the maintenance of
sanctions; of progress towards the implementation of LomV and of the outcome
of his recent visits to East Africa.
In the debate that followed Mr Marins address, questions
were raised on the slow pace of implementation of Community programmes, and on
the possibility of enlivening the Lomnstitutions - the Joint Assembly and the
ACP-EEC Council. Mr Saby (Soc, F.), the Development Committees present
Chairman, raised the issue of a special session of the Parliament, to be devoted
to development and of a high-level seminar on the implementation of the
Communitys development policy, suggestions which were both welcomed by the
The Community issued the following statement on 25 July:
The Comunity and its Member States follow with deep
concern the course of events in Liberia. They deplore in particular the loss of
life among the civilian population and the wholescale destruction caused by the
civil war and support the efforts of all those who are working to restore peace
in the country. The Community and its Member States launch an urgent appeal for
an end to the sufferings of the Liberian people and to havoc and war in the
Angola and Mozambique
The Community issued the following statement on 13 July:
The Twelve reaffirm their conviction that a solution of
the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique is possible through dialogue and note, in
this respect, some encouraging developments.
- In Angola, they welcome the commitment to a pluralistic
political system, contained in the communiquf the MPLA Central Committee,
published on 4 July. This commitment will certainly enhance the prospects for a
genuine dialogue and for internal reconciliation in Angola.
They have also noted with interest the contacts which are taking
place under Portuguese auspices between the government of Angola and UNITA.
- On Mozambique, they welcome the positive outcome of the first
official meeting between a delegation of the government of Mozambique and one of
RENAMO which took place in Rome on 8-10 July. They feel encouraged by the
decision of the parties to reconvene in Rome at an early date.
In the light of such positive steps, the Twelve urge all parties
concerned in each of the two countries to work to establish a cease-fire as an
indispensible preliminary for the negotiation of a lasting political settlement.
The Community and its Member States reaffirm their commitment to
support this process by aiding the reconstruction and development of both these
The Commission of the European Communities approved, in June, a
communication to the Council on new lines to be taken in the EECs Special
Programme for the victims of apartheid in South Africa.
The Commission suggests that the political dimension
of the programme be maintained (until such time as there is proof of
irreversible progress towards the complete abolition of apartheid) and that
relations with bodies such as the South African Council of Churches, the
Conference of Catholic Bishops, the Kasigo Trust and trades unions be continued
would be taken into account and on-the-spot coordination would be improved.
According to the Commission, priority under the programme would
be given to training and education, rural development, community development and
to emergency health care. Projects would be expected to support and promote in
some way the concept of racial equality.
The Member States are expected to decide on these proposals
sometime in the autumn.
The new lines the Programme would take was one of the topics of
discussion in the talks held between the President of the Commission, Mr Jacques
Delors, and Mr Nelson Mandela when they met in Strasbourg in June (see The
Courier N°122, Yellow Pages, p. I) in the presence of two of the
Commissions Vice-Presidents, Mr Frans Andriessen (External Relations and
Trade) and Mr Manuel Marin (Development and Fisheries).ECONOMIC AND MONETARY
On 1 July 1990, the European Community entered into stage one of
At the same time, the difficulties the achievement of Economic
and arising out of the return of exiles Monetary Union as was decided by the
European Council in Madrid 12 months ago.
In Dublin, the European Council decided to convene the
Intergovernmental conference on EMU on 13 December. The Council also considered
that the first stage should be used to ensure convergence in the economic
performance of Member States, to advance cohesion and to further the use of the
ecu, all of which are of importance for further progress towards EMU.
Stage one will be crucial to the success of the whole
process, according to Vice-President Henning Christophersen, It
must bring about greater convergence of economic performance through the
strengthening of economic and monetary policy coordination within the existing
institutional framework. The Vice-President believed that preparations for
stage one have been successfully concluded:
- Capital movements, which were to be liberalised no later than
1 July in all Member States except four, have been freed from restrictions ahead
- A system of multilateral surveillance has been set up in order
to coordinate economic policies more efficiently and has already been used
successfully in the ECOFIN Council on 11 June.
- The Committee of Central Bank Governors has been strengthened
and the framework for the coordination of monetary policies has been improved.
- The European Monetary System has been consolidated by
extending the common rules to the Italian lira and the Belgian franc, and
exchange rate parities have been stable for 3 1/2 years. Full participation of
the pound sterling at an early date seems likely.
Finally, the work for the completion of the internal market by
the end of 1992 is well on track.
The goal of stage one is to prepare the ground for subsequent
stages, Mr Christophersen added. The Heads of State and Government declared in
Dublin that the Intergovernmental Conference on Economic and Monetary Union
should conclude its work rapidly, with the objective of ratification of the
results by Member States before the end of