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close this bookThe Global Greenhouse Regime. Who Pays? (UNU, 1993, 382 p.)
View the documentList of contributors
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderPart I Measuring responsibility
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe greenhouse effect
View the documentWhat was decided at Rio?
View the documentProtocol negotiating difficulties
View the documentKey issues for climate change negotiations
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close this folder2 The basics of greenhouse gas indices
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View the documentApples and oranges
View the documentImplications
View the documentConclusion: indices do matter
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close this folder3 Assessing emissions: five approaches compared
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentComprehensiveness compared
View the documentAccuracy by category
View the documentRegional and national emissions by source
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix A: Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions
View the documentAppendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions
close this folder4 Who pays (to solve the problem and how much)?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIndices of allocation: a brief review
View the documentAccountability
View the documentEquity and efficiency
View the documentConclusion
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close this folderPart II Resource transfers
close this folder5 North-South carbon abatement costs
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentMethod overview
View the documentImplications for the South
View the documentNotes and references
close this folder6 North-South transfer
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObligation to pay indices
View the documentRedistribution of incremental cost
View the documentBenchmarks
View the documentUN scale of payments
View the documentFinancing mechanisms
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes and references
close this folder7 Insuring against sea level rise
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInsurability of losses
View the documentOil pollution
View the documentNuclear damage
View the documentImplications
View the documentThe insurance scheme proposed by AOSIS
View the documentThe Climate Change Convention
View the documentNotes and references
View the documentAppendix: Scheme proposed by AOSIS for inclusion in the Climate Change Convention
close this folderPart III National greenhouse gas reduction cost curves
close this folder8 Integrating ecology and economy in India
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEmissions inventory
View the documentEnergy efficiency and fuel substitution
View the documentEmissions and sequestration from forest biomass
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
close this folder9 Carbon abatement potential in West Africa
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLong-term energy and carbon emissions scenarios
View the documentOptions for rational energy use and carbon conservation
View the documentEconomic opportunities for implementation
View the documentPolicy issues for the region
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close this folder10 Abatement of carbon dioxide emissions in Brazil
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View the documentBrazil energy economy
View the documentEnergy subsector analyses
View the documentChanging land-use trends
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close this folder11 Thailand's demand side management initiative: a practical response to global warming
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEnd-use energy efficiency policies
View the documentCosts and benefits of the DSM master plan
View the documentCO2 reductions from the DSM Plan
View the documentWhy should other developing countries adopt DSM?
View the documentThe role of the multilateral development banks
View the documentConclusions
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close this folder12 Carbon abatement in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEnergy-environment nexus
View the documentScenarios for the future
View the documentCountry results
View the documentPolicy implications
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close this folder13 Greenhouse gas emission abatement in Australia
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbatement of energy sector emissions
View the documentEconomic impact of abatement strategies
View the documentNon-energy emission abatement
View the documentAustralia's international role
View the documentCarbon taxes, externalities and other policy instruments
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close this folderPart IV Conclusion
close this folder14 Constructing a global greenhouse regime
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentConditionality and additionality
View the documentTechnology transfer
View the documentMulti-pronged approach
View the documentImplementation procedures
View the documentRegional building blocks
View the documentNorth-'South' conflicts
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes and references
close this folderAppendix: The Climate change convention
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground
View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentArticle 1. Definitions
View the documentArticle 2. Objective
View the documentArticle 3. Principles
View the documentArticle 4 Commitments
View the documentArticle 5. Research and systematic observation
View the documentArticle 6. Education, training and public awareness
View the documentArticle 7. Conference of the Parties
View the documentArticle 8. Secretariat
View the documentArticle 9. Subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice
View the documentArticle 10. Subsidiary Body for implementation
View the documentArticle 11. Financial mechanism
View the documentArticle 12. Communication of information related to implementation
View the documentArticle 13. Resolution of questions regarding implementation
View the documentArticle 14. Settlement of disputes
View the documentArticle 15. Amendments to the Convention
View the documentArticle 16. Adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
View the documentArticle 17. Protocols
View the documentArticle 18. Right to vote
View the documentArticle 19. Depositary
View the documentArticle 20. Signature
View the documentArticle 21. Interim arrangements
View the documentArticle 22. Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
View the documentArticle 23. Entry into force
View the documentArticle 24. Reservations
View the documentArticle 25. Withdrawal
View the documentArticle 26. Authentic texts

Notes and references

1 See UN Development Programme, Human Development Report 1990, Oxford University Press, New York, 1990

2 See K Smith et al., Indices for a Greenhouse Gas Control Regime that Incorporate Both Efficiency and Equity Goals; report to Environmental Policy and Research Division, World Bank, Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 21, 1991; and Chapter 4 of this book

3 M Grubb, J Sebenius, A Magalhaes and S Subak, 'Sharing the Burden,' in I Mintzer (ed), Confronting Climate Change, Risks, Implications, and Responses, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1992, p 321

4 See T Hyder, 'Climate Negotiations The North/South Perspective,' in I Mintzer (ed), Confronting Climate Change, ibid, p 328

5 W Nitze, 'Criteria for Negotiating a Greenhouse Convention that Leads to Actual Emissions Reductions,' International Challenges, volume 11, no 1, 1991, p 15; see also A K N Reddy, 'Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency,' Energy Policy, December 1991, pp 953-961

6 World Resources Institute, World Resources, 1992-93, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, pp 8; 236-7

7 G Piel, 'Agenda 21 A New Magna Carta,' Earth Summit Times, September 14, 1992, p 11

8 Scientists and technicians from UN Development Programme, Human Development Report, 1992, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, p 190; population data from World Resources, World Resources, 1992-93, op cit (endnote 6), p 76

9 L Lunde, The North/South Dimension in Global Greenhouse Politics, Conflicts, Dilemmas, Solutions, Report 9, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1990, p 17

10 Table 1475, US Department of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of the United States, recent annual editions, Washington DC

11 See the survey in S Barrett, 'Economic Instruments for Global Climate Change Policy', London Business School for Environment Directorate, OECD, Paris, 1990; a more accessible version is found in Barrett's 'Global Warming, The Economics of a Carbon Tax,' in D Pearce (ed), Blueprint 2, Greening the World Economy, Earthscan Books, London, 1991, pp 38-39. See also Price Waterhouse Government Liaison Services, Consultancy Report to Department of Arts, Sport, The Environment, Tourism and Territories on Carbon Tax, Canberra, ACT, June 1991

12 For a summary of eight carbon tax studies, see S Barrett, 'Global Warming, The Economics of a Carbon Tax,' in D Pearce (ed), Blueprint 2, ibid, pp 38-39

13 See J Epstein and R Gupta, Controlling the Greenhouse Effect: Five Global Regimes Compared; Brookings Occasional Papers; The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 1990; D Victor, 'Limits of market-based strategies for slowing global warming: The case of traceable permits', Policy Sciences, volume 24, 1991, pp 199-222; A Markandya, 'Global Warming, The Economics of Tradeable Permits,' in D Pearce (ed), Blueprint 2, op cit (endnote 11), pp 53-62

14 For reviews of this experience, see E Meidinger, 'On Explaining the Development of 'Emissions Trading' in US Air Pollution Regulation', Law and Policy, volume 7, no 4, October 1985, pp 447-477; and T Tietenberg, 'Transferable Discharge Permits and the Control of Stationary Source Air Pollution: A Survey and Synthesis'; Land Economics, volume 56, no 4, November 1980, pp 391416

15 M Grubb and J Sebenius, Participation, Allocation and Adaptability in International Tradeable Emission Permit Systems for Greenhouse Gas Control, forthcoming in OECD workshop proceedings on greenhouse gas traceable permits, Paris, June 1991, p 4.

16 J Swisher and G Masters, International Carbon Emission Offsets: A Tradeable Currency for Climate Protection Services, Technical Report309, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 28 February 1989

17 Joel Swisher, personal communication, June 22,1992

18 W Makundi et al provide detailed estimates of current, committed and delayed carbon uptake and emissions in southern forests in Carbon Emissions and Sequestration in Forests: Case Studies From Seven Developing Countries, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, LBL-32119, UC-402 (draft), August 1992

19 See J Swisher and G Masters,'A Mechanism to Reconcile Equity and Efficiency in Global Climate Protection: International Carbon Emission Offsets,' Ambio, volume 21, no 3, April 1992, pp 154-159