|Science, Hegemony and Violence (UNU, 1988, 301 p.)|
|3. Science, colonialism and violence: A luddite view|
1. Ivan Illich, Shadow Work (Boston: Marion Boyars, 1981).
2. Lewis Mumford, The Myth of the Machine: The Pentagon of Power (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1964), pp. 51-65; and Interpretations and Forecasts: 1922-72 (Boston: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979), pp. 159-67.
3. Felix Paturi, Nature, Mother of Invention (Themes and Hudson, 1976); and Karl von Frisch, Animal Architecture (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).
4. Ashis Nandy, The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983).
5. Peter Singer, Animal Liberation (New York: Random, 1975), pp. 29-30.
6. Ibid., p. 81.
7. Ibid., p. 82.
8. Mahesh K. Varma, 'Introduction', in Minoru Kasai, Gandhi and the Contemporary World (Pune: Centre for Communication Studies, 1980), p. iii.
9. M. K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj (Ahmedabad: Navjivan, 1962).
10 M. Fukuoka, One-Straw Revolution (Hoshangabad: Friends' Rural Centre, 1985), p. 18.
11. Illich, Shadow Work, p. 38.
12. Ibid., p. 43.
13. Ibid., p. 40.
14. Ibid., p. 44
15. R. H. Richharia, Our Strategy on the Rice Production Front in Madhya Pradesh (Raipur: M.P. Rice Research Institute, 1979), pp. 5-6.
16. Radhika Ramasubhan, Public Health and Medical Research in India: Their Origins under the Impact of British Colonial Policy (Stockholm: SAREC, 1982).
17. C. V. Seshadri, Development and Thermodynamics (Madras: Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, 1982).
18. C. V. Seshadri and V. Balaji, Towards a New Science of Agriculture (Madras: Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, 1982), p. 4.
19. Ibid., p. 5.
20. T. Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th Century America (The Athlone Press, 1979), pp. 261-2.
21. Ibid., p. 269. The late Jacob Bronowski expressed the same sentiments in his television serial, The Ascent of Man (1973).
22. Quoted in Mumford, The Myth of the Machine, p. 64.
23. E. B. Balfour, The Living Soil and the Haughty Experiment (London: Faber, 1946), p. 13
24. Ibid., p. 48.
25. Seshadri and Balaji, Towards a New Science, p. 9.
26. Ibid., pp. 12-13.
27. Pat R. Mooney, Seeds of the Earth: A Private or Public Resource? (London: International Coalition for Development Action, 1969), p. 5.
Modern science has encouraged a similar development vis-is India's traditional, indigenous breeds of cattle. The present programmes involve a massive extension of genes imported from abroad into the indigenous gene pools for quick results. The imported genes are often carriers of malignant information or disease susceptibility. India is thus using modern knowledge of cross-breeding, without possessing every detail in advance. The unknown variables make the science of cross-breeding a dangerous programme, with unknown results. This is not nature's way. India's indigenous cattle have evolved over the decades in close symbiosis with local environments. They are comfortable with them. Modern science is now creating animals that are permanently, physiologically uncomfortable with the local environment. Modern science does not respect any environment except its own.
28. Fukuoka, One-Straw Revolution.
29. Manu L. Kothari and Lopa Mehta, 'Utopia and Modern Medicine', Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, July 1978, 24, pp. 131-7.
30. Paturi, Nature, p. 7.
31. Ibid., p. 10.
32. Ibid., p. 22.
33. Ibid., pp. 32-46.
34. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
35. Ibid., p. 12.
36. Anil Agarwal, Ravi Chopra and Ravi Sharma (eds.), Citizens' Report on the Environment (New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1982).
Some of the authors listed above may not approve of the uses to which their work/ideas have been put. This happens almost daily with science (vide Hiroshima and Nagasaki).