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close this bookReversing the Spiral - The Population, Agriculture, and Environment Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa (WB, 1994, 320 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentAcronyms and abbreviations
close this folder1. Introduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe three basic concerns
View the documentKey elements of the ''Nexus''
View the documentPopulation growth revisited: Feedback from the Nexus
View the documentElements of an action plan
View the documentConclusions
close this folder2. Agricultural stagnation and environmental
View the documentAgricultural stagnation, population growth, and food security
View the documentThe deteriorating natural resource base and ecological environment
View the documentNotes
close this folder3. The demographic dimension
View the documentThe lagging demographic transition
View the documentFertility and agriculture: Part of the Nexus?
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix to chapter 3
close this folder4. The Nexus of population growth, agricultural stagnation, and environmental degradation
View the documentThe main linkages
View the documentTraditional crop cultivation and livestock husbandry methods
View the documentLand and tree tenure systems and the Nexus
View the documentDeforestation, fuelwood, and the Nexus
View the documentLogging
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix to chapter 4
close this folder5. The role of women in production systems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe female - headed household syndrome
View the documentThe gender division of rural labor and fanning systems
View the documentThe separation of budgets
View the documentWomen, food security, and nutrition
View the documentFarm technology and gender
View the documentWomen's time use and productivity
View the documentNotes
close this folder6. A framework for action
View the documentA continental perspective
View the documentSome country-specific targets and implications
close this folder7. Reducing population growth
View the documentPopulation policy
View the documentPrimary education
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNote
close this folder8. Promoting sustainable agricultural development
View the documentSustainable and environmentally benign agriculture
View the documentInputs
View the documentAgroforestry
View the documentStoves that save fuel and women's time
View the documentPolicy and institutional aspects
View the documentLand policy and tenure reform
View the documentAgricultural support services
View the documentExchange rate, trade, fiscal, and pricing policies
View the documentLocal institutions: involving the people
View the documentConclusion
close this folder9. Infrastructure development, migration, and urbanization
View the documentInfrastructura development
View the documentTransport
View the documentWater supply
View the documentInfrastructure and environmental conservation
View the documentMigration and settlement policy
View the documentAn appropriate urbanization policy
close this folder10. Managing the natural resource base
View the documentProduction versus protection
View the documentForests
View the documentNatural resource management in farming areas
View the documentDryland and range areas
View the documentWater
View the documentCommon elements
View the documentThe role of governments
View the documentNational environmental action plans
close this folder11.Conclusion
View the documentThe problem
View the documentRecommendations for action
View the documentStatus of implementation
View the documentIssues and follow-up
View the documentStatistical appendix
View the documentBibliography
View the documentThe Authors


This study has benefited from considerable input from a number of our colleagues both within and outside the World Rank. Roland Michelitsch conducted much of the statistical analysis summarized in the Supplement to this volume. Sandy Gain, Pushpa Schwartz, and S. Yalamanchili contributed statistical material.

An initial report setting out the hypotheses to be studied was the subject of a seminar held at the World Bank in June 1990, chaired by Michel Petit. Subsequently, seminars were held with the Country Departments of the Africa Region of the World Bank. A formal review in the World Bank of an initial draft report in [December 1991 was chaired by Michel Petit. Drafts have been presented to representatives of African governments and development agencies as well as of nongovernmental organizations at the West and Central African Rain Forest Conservation Conference in Abidjan in October 1990, to academic fore organized by Montclair State College in New Jersey in November 1990 and by the Harvard Center for population and Development Studies in March 1992, to an international conference on population issues in Africa organized by the Government of France in September 1991, to staff of USAID on several occasions between July 1990 and August 1993, to officials of the Caisse Franse de Dloppement in Paris in January 1992, and to staff of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (BMZ), Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW) and Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) in Frankfurtin April 1993. Members of the world Bank Africa Region's Thematic Team on the Population, Agriculture, and Environment Nexus have also provided comments and suggestions. These venous inputs and reviews, and additional research stimulated by the comments and suggestions received, have resulted in the present study.

Special thanks for support, comments, suggestions, and contributions are due to: E. V. K. Jaycox, Robert McNamara, Ismail Serageldin, Caio KochWeser, Michel Petit, Anand Seth, Steve O'Brien, Ishrat Z. Husain, Michael Gillette, Pierre Landell-Mills, Fred Sai, Dunstan Wai, Ishrat Husain, John Peberdy, Dennis Mahar, Leif Christoffersen, Frans Falloux, John English, Susan Cochrane, Althea Hill, Harry Walters, Agi Kiss, Frans Wencus, Joanne Salop, Jean Doyen, Cynthia Cook, Willem Floor, Mary Dyson, Elizabeth Morris-Hughes, Julia Clones, Paul Shaw, John Spears, Moctar TourPhillippe Caquard, Montague Yudelman, Allen Keliey, Michael Paolisso, Larry Stifel, P. C. Mohan, Dixie Barlow, and Deirdre T. Murphy, and staff of the FAO and the Caisse Franse de Dloppement.

Finally, the comments and suggestions of four anonymous reviewers have been most useful and are acknowledged with particular gratitude.