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close this bookPartners in Time? Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development (UNRISD, 1999, 85 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSummary/Résumé/Resumen
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPart 1: The changing nature of business-ngo relations
View the documentConflict and Collaboration
View the documentBusiness Responses to Sustainable Development
close this folderNGO Responses to Sustainable Development
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDefining NGOs
View the documentThree or Four Waves of Environmental NGOs?
View the documentFour Generations of Development NGOs
View the documentSouthern NGOs
View the documentNGO Diversity and Tension
View the documentCase Studies of Business-NGO Relations
close this folderToward an Understanding of Business-NGO Relations
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View the documentTheoretical Perspectives on Business-NGO Relations
close this folderConclusions: The Characteristics of Collaboration
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View the documentPreconditions
View the documentInteractive Processes
View the documentOutcomes and Consequences
close this folderPart 2: Toward civil regulation
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe Political Dimensions of Corporate Environmentalism
View the documentNGOs and the Politics of Pressure in a Globalizing Economy
View the documentFrom Producer Politics to Consumer Politics
View the documentBeyond Legal Versus Self-Compliance
close this folderThe Case for Civil Regulation
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View the documentThe Corporate Rationale for Civil Regulation
View the documentThe NGO Rationale for Civil Regulation
View the documentThe Potential of Civil Regulation for the South
close this folderGovernmental Policy Frameworks for Civil Regulation
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View the documentGovernment as Facilitator
View the documentToward Global Private Regulation
View the documentOther Policy Options and Obstacles
View the documentConclusion
View the documentBibliography
View the documentPersonal communications

Interactive Processes

Another aspect of understanding the business-NGO partnership phenomenon is to consider the various interactive processes that take place as part of the development and implementation of such initiatives in different contexts. These may include interactions within the organizational boundaries of the partnership concerned, as well as external influences. The following list is not a definitive checklist for the business-NGO partnership process, but rather initial perceptions based upon the case studies and other relevant material.

Interactive processes include the following:

· capacity and willingness of partners to cope with the diverse perspectives and paradoxical goals from the outset and throughout the process;

· commitment of partners to principles of shared responsibility, mutual symbiosis and joint ownership;

· articulation of honest and realistic expectations by partners;

· development of a flexible structure consistent with the purpose and functioning of the partnership;

· organizational commitment of business partner(s) to change unsustainable practices through specific policies, concrete actions and ongoing support for the partnership;

· ability of NGO partner to maintain organizational independence and integrity;

· ongoing pressure from other NGOs and activists related to the problem domain;

· capability of business and NGO partner(s) to respond appropriately to such ongoing pressure;

· capacity to broaden partnership scope and participation in some cases to include relevant UN and governmental agencies (e.g., Pakistan);

· ongoing tensions between businesses and NGOs about the potentials and limits of partnership in different geographical, political, social and cultural contexts.