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close this bookTeacher Training: a Reference Manual (Peace Corps, 1986, 176 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderIntroduction
View the documentPeace corps and teacher training
View the documentFormat of the teacher training reference manual
View the documentUses of the manual
close this folderChapter 1 what a teacher trainer needs to know
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderUnderstanding comparative educational systems
View the documentThe education system
View the documentThe teacher training system
View the documentNeeds assessment
close this folderAdult learning
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View the documentAndragogy vs. pedagogy
View the documentPersonal learning styles
View the documentMotivation
close this folderConsiderations in designing a training program
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDefining program goals and
View the documentSelecting topic areas
View the documentDesigning learning activities
View the documentTraining rhythm and flow
View the documentIncorporating program evaluation
View the documentAnalyzing training constraints
close this folderTraining techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Ice Breaker:
View the document2. Brainstorming:
View the document4. Demonstrations:
View the document5. Games/Simulations/Structured Experiences:
View the document6. Small Groups (Diads, Triads, and More):
View the document7. Role Play:
View the document8. Fishbowl:
View the document9. Field Trips:
View the document10. Interviews:
View the document11. Panels:
View the document12. Case Studies:
View the document13. Critical Incidents:
View the document14. Micro-teaching:
View the document15. Peer Training:
close this folderSupervision
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClinical supervision
View the documentObservation
View the documentObservation techniques
View the documentData collection
close this folderFinal considerations for the trainer
View the documentAssessing personal training constraints
View the documentReassessing teacher needs
close this folderChapter 2 what a teacher needs to know
View the documentUnderstanding the educational process
View the documentNeeds assessment, aims, goals and general objectives
close this folderApproaches to teaching
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSources of teaching approaches
View the documentSummary chart of approaches
View the documentChoosing an approach
View the documentRecent research in teacher effectiveness
View the documentAdapting teaching approaches to the cultural setting
close this folderChild and adolescent learning
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close this folderDevelopmental Theories
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View the documentThe cognitive domain
View the documentThe affective domain
View the documentThe psychomotor domain
close this folderInformation processing
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View the documentBasic sensory perception
View the documentLearning styles
View the documentGrouping strategies
View the documentConsiderations in cross-cultural settings
View the documentSubject-specific considerations
close this folderInstructional objectives
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View the documentWriting a complete objective
View the documentCategories of instructional objectives
View the documentVerbs to use in writing objectives
View the documentAvoiding errors in stating objectives
View the documentSubject-specific verbs
close this folderLesson planning
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhat teachers say about planning
View the documentWhat's in a plan
View the documentPlanning daily lessons
View the documentWriting a lesson plan
View the documentLesson plan format
View the documentSequencing and long-range planning
View the documentChoosing from alternatives
close this folderClassroom teaching techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTeacher-centered and student-centered techniques
close this folderTeacher-centered techniques
View the documentThe lecture method
View the documentQuestion and answer
View the documentRecitation and drill
close this folderStudent-centered techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSmall group formation
View the documentBrainstorm
View the documentRole play
View the documentGames and simulations
View the documentDrama and music
View the documentField trips
View the documentIndividualized learning and student projects
close this folderMaterials development and resource utilization
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInstructional materials and the learning process
View the documentUsing what is available
View the documentProducing educational materials
View the documentUsing materials in the classroom
View the documentEvaluating instructional materials
close this folderClassroom management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe physical aspects of the classroom
View the documentCurriculum design considerations
View the documentExpectations and limits
View the documentSupport systems
View the documentTeacher attitude
View the documentTeaching routines
View the documentTeacher on stage
View the documentAddressing individual needs
View the documentHandling discipline problems
View the documentUsing the least amount of necessary discipline
close this folderAssessment of student learning
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderAssessment techniques
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View the documentChoosing an assessment technique
close this folderTesting
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View the documentConstructing a test
View the documentAdministering a test
View the documentScoring a test
View the documentAnalysing test results
View the documentImplications for instruction
View the documentSelf-assessment
View the documentReviewing the educational process
close this folderChapter 3 collaboration
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderTapping human resources
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIn-service training workshops and conferences
View the documentAdvisory groups
View the documentClassroom observation/critiquing
View the documentTeam teaching
View the documentTapping and developing material resources
View the documentInformal collaborative activities
close this folderCollaboration skills
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOrganization
View the documentCommunication
View the documentFeedback/ critiquing
View the documentWorking in groups
View the documentLeadership
View the documentNetworking
close this folderAppendix
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View the documentFlanders' interaction analysis (from chapter 1 - Supervision)

Working in groups

To prepare for working in groups, a large part of a successful collaboration strategy, the teacher should understand the basic principles of group dynamics and the various functions group members perform. When working in groups, it is important to maintain a baler between process and task functions.

Process functions include:

° ENCOURAGING: being friendly, warm, responsive to others, praising others and their ideas, agreeing with the accepting the contributions of others.

° MEDIATING: harmonizing, conciliating differences in points of view, making compromises.

° RELIEVING TENSION: draining off negative feeling by jesting or throwing oil on troubled waters, diverting attention from unpleasant to pleasant matters.

° FOLLOWING: going along with the group, somewhat passively accepting the ideas of others, serving as an audience during group discussion, being a good listener.

° STANDARD SETTING: expressing standards for the group to use in choosing its subject matter or procedures, rules of conduct, ethical values.

° GATE KEEPING: trying to make it possible for another member to make a contribution by saying, "We haven't heard from Karamo yet," or suggesting limited talking time for everyone so that all will have a chance to be heard.

Task functions include:

° INITIATING: suggesting new ideas or a changed way of looking at the group problem or goal, proposing new activities.

° INFORMATION SEEKING: asking for relevant facts or authoritative information.

° INFORMATION GIVING: providing relevant facts or authoritative information or relating personal experience pertinently to the group task.

° OPINION GIVING: stating a pertinent belief or opinion about something the group is considering.

° CLARIFYING: probing for meaning and understanding, restating something the group is considering.

° ELABORATING: building on a previous comment, enlarging on it, giving examples.

° COORDINATING: Showing or clarifying the relationships among various ideas, trying to pull ideas and suggestions together.

° ORIENTING: defining the progress of the discussion in terms of the group's goals, raising questions about the direction the discussion is taking.

° TESTING: checking with the group to see if it is ready to make a decision or to take some action.

° SUMMARIZING: reviewing the content of the past discussion.

These functions are not needed equally at all times by a group. Indeed, if a given function is performed inappropriately, it may interfere with the group's operation -- as when some jester relieves group tension just when the tension is about to result in some real action. But often, when a group is not getting along as it should, a diagnosis of the problem will probably indicate that nobody is performing one of the functions listed above that is needed at that moment to move the group ahead.


1. When you work in groups, do you find yourself playing one role more than any other? Which one(s)?

2. How does your role affect the dynamics of the group?

3. Do you ever wish you could stop playing a particular role or start playing another one? How can you make this happen?