Cover Image
close this bookToward Gender Equality: The Role of Public Policy (WB, 1995, 88 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
close this folderDefinitions and Data Notes
View the documentDefinitions
View the documentData Notes
View the documentSummary
View the documentProgress to Date
View the documentWhy Do Gender Inequalities Persist?
View the documentStrategies for the Future
View the documentConclusion
close this folderChapter one
View the documentGender Inequalities Persist
View the documentEducation
View the documentHealth
View the documentEmployment Work
close this folderChapter two
View the documentGender Inequalities Hamper Growth
View the documentHousehold and Intrahousehold Resource Allocation
View the documentLinkages between Education Health, and Nutritious
View the documentHousehold and Labor Market Linkages
View the documentFormal Sector Employment
View the documentInformal Sector
View the documentAccess to Financial Markets
View the documentAccess to Lund and Property
View the documentAccess to Extension Services
View the documentConclusion
close this folderChapter three
View the documentPublic Policies Matter
View the documentEqualizing Opportunities by Modifying, the Legal Framework
View the documentLand and Property Rights
View the documentLabor Market Policies and Employment Law
View the documentFamily Law
View the documentWomen's bargaining position in relation to household
View the documentFinancial Laws and Regulations
View the documentMacroeconomic: Policies
View the documentInflation tends to hit women harder than men.
View the documentSectoral Investments
View the documentUsing Targeting Measures to Narrow the Gender
View the documentInvolving Beneficiaries in Public Policy
View the documentGenerating and Analyzing Gender-Desegregated Data
View the documentWorking in Collaboration
View the documentStrengthening International Policies to Meet New Challenges
View the documentConclusions
View the documentNotes
View the documentReferences


1. Birdsall and Sabot (1994) use earlier findings by Barro (1991) to test the relationship between inequality and growth. They find that in Latin America unequal distribution of education. in terms of both quality and quantity, constrained economic growth in the region by reducing opportunities for increasing labor productivity. In East Asia open and relatively equal access to high-quality basic education led to a virtuous circle of high educational performance that stimulated growth and reduced inequality

2. Subbarao and Raney (1993) estimate that a doubling of family planning services in 1982 would have reduced the fertility rate from 5.5 to 5 0 and the number of births by 3.5 percent

3. The Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) is a series of multitopic surveys designed to study multiple aspects of household welfare

4. Deforestation is represented by the time required to collect a standard load of fuelwood

5. It would be more illuminating to compare wage differences across three categories of women workers: women without children: women with children but with no interruption in employment except for statutory maternity leave: and women with children and with interrupted employment

6. Among women workers. 53 percent are in commerce. compared with 33 percent of men. In manufacturing. 16 percent of the workers are men. compared with 14 percent for women. In services, 37 percent are men anti 33 percent are women (World Bank 1995c)

7. In Bolivia informal moneylenders require borrowers to write postdated checks. If borrowers tail to make timely repayments, these checks are deposited and, as the lender knows will bounce for lack of funds A bounced check is a criminal offense in Bolivia. and the lender can have the borrower arrested The World Bank estimates that about 20 percent of all Bolivian prison inmates-and 40 percent of female inmates imprisoned for 'bouncing' checks and for other collateral-related crimes. In many cases children must live in prison with their mothers (winkler and Guedes, 1995)

8. The International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREECA) was held in Guatemala City in May 1989 A total of 126 projects in seven countries were introduced. with an overall investment of $365 million Areas with high densities of returnees were targeted. and special attention was given to projects to support displaced women