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close this bookLow Cost Charcoal Gasifiers for Rural Energy Supply (GTZ, 1994, 49 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the document1. What? Gasifiers?
View the document2. Gasification in recent history
View the document3. Small gasifier-engine systems for rural energy supply in developing countries
close this folder4. The trouble with ''field applications''
View the document4.1 Weak points of gasifier-engine-systems
View the document4.2 The problem of ''acceptance''
close this folder5. Lowering plant costs by ferrocement construction
View the document5.1 What makes a gasifier expensive?
View the document5.2 The construction of a ferrocement gasifier
close this folder6. Technical performance of the ferrocement gasifier
View the document6.1 Design details
View the document6.2 Performance data
close this folder7. Derived technical demands for field application of gasifier-engine systems
View the document(introduction...)
View the document7.1 Issues in engine operation
View the document7.2 Typical applications
View the document7.3 Repair and maintenance of the ferrocement gasifier
close this folder8. Non-technical aspects of gasifier operation in the field
View the document(introduction...)
View the document8.1 Pro's and contras of the ''do it yourself'' approach
View the document8.2 Community plant or private ownership?
View the document8.3 Qualification and motivation of the operator
View the document8.4 Implications of non-technical issues
close this folder9. Economics of gasifier operation
View the document9.1 How to compare gasifier costs
View the document9.2 Case study: Comparative costs of gasifier installations in Argentina and Malaysia
close this folder10. Concepts of future dissemination of small gasifier-engine systems
View the document10.1 Perspectives of biomass energy
View the document10.2 The actual limits of gasification technologies
View the document10.3 Substitution of firewood by other biomasses
View the document10.4 Framework for establishing gasification technologies
View the documentReferences

6.1 Design details

For a better understanding of the specific advantages of the ferrocement design, it is useful to distinguish criteria of constructive design (which can be applied in a metal construction as well) from material-specific criteria (which are typical for the application of ferrocement). It will become obvious that the ferrocement charcoal gasifier, as realized in its present form, is possibly just the first step in a different way of building gasifiers.

The gasifier of Robert Reines is a down draft gasifier with a straight cylindrical reaction zone-this is common to all conventional small charcoal gasifiers. Furthermore, it is of an ,,open core" type. That means, primary air for the reaction zone is not entering through nozzles (wall nozzles, central nozzle), but has a more or less unlimited access to the combustion zone. The open core principle has been applied so far mainly in rice husk gasifiers in down draft operation, where the flow of primary air is uniform over the complete cross section of the fuel bed. This is slightly different in the ferrocement charcoal gasifier discussed here, where the fuel bunker, closed by a top cover in a water seal, is sitting on the combustion zone. The primary air enters through a circular slit between cylinder wall and bunker rim (see fig.9). The application of this open core principle has an important impact on the technical reliability of the gasifier: The problem of disturbed bunker flow, often reported from nozzle gasifiers, is definitely reduced, as no nozzles disturb the downward flow of the fuel column. In addition to this, the uniform temperature distribution over the cross section of the combustion zone improves the flow characteristics. As an additional effect, no nozzles can melt or flake, an effect which requires subsequent repair work in nozzle gasifiers.

The reactor cylinder in the gasifier is easily accessible by removing the bunker. This is an advantage to the refractory lining in closed metal vessels of most conventional gasifiers as it is easier to replace the refractory cylinder by another one of different diameter in order to adapt it to the engine size. In order to avoid thermal ruptures of the refractory walls, the cylinder is preferably made of three rings of three blocks each. The thermal insulation to the outer wall is made of compacted rice husk ash. According to Reines, the ash begins to melt near the refractory cylinder surface and thus seals the slits between the bricks.

Table 1: Typical performance data of the ferroment gasifier (Mean values, ar = as received) Reaction cylinder: 300 mm diameter



fuel input:


higher heating value, ar



fuel consumption for starting period, ar



specific fuel consumption under load (10 kW)



Gas components:


% vol



% vol



% vol


gas flow



gas heating value



gasifier conversion efficiency


engine/generator set:

engine volume



engine speed



volumetric efficiency


engine/generator efficiency


power output, electrical



total conversion efficiency (electrical power vs. Fuel heat content)


The configuration of the reaction zone of the Reines gasifier is not determined by the application of ferrocement as main building material; it can be done in the same way in a metal gasifier [12]. It has been said already that the open core principle is not completely new in gasifier construction. It is, however, not common in small charcoal gasifiers, and it is not necessarily guaranteed that it is effective in that case. Therefore, as a first step it had to be tested wether this design was as good-or even better-than a nozzle gasifier in terms of effective conversion of solid fuel to combustible gas.