Cover Image
close this bookIdeas for Action : Save, Recycle and Do Not Pollute (IIRR, 1992, 146 p.)
close this folderIntroduction
View the documentWorkshop to produce an information kit on the ideas for action
View the documentParticipants
View the documentSave, recycle and do not polute: basic principles of ideas for action
close this folderConserving resources
View the documentEnvironment-friendly and energy-saving tips in the office
View the documentEnergy-saving actions for the home
View the documentCar care for the environment
View the documentAlternative transportation
View the documentWater power
View the documentCoastal resources conservation
View the documentEnvironment-friendly aquaculture
View the documentSoil and water conservation in upland farms
View the documentWater conservation in lowland farms
View the documentWater conservation in farm households
View the documentWater conservation at home and in the workplace
View the documentSave trees for our survival
View the documentEnvironment-friendly use of firewood
View the documentMaking a haybasket cooker
close this folderWildlife and habitat conservation
View the documentWhat not to do with wildlife
View the documentStop wildlife trade
View the documentMonitoring for the protection of wildlife
View the documentSpecial conservation campaigns for selected wildlife species
View the documentSaving an endangered endemic bird: the case of the black shama (copysychus cebuensis)
View the documentThe making of a sanctuary: the case of the olango wildlife sanctuary (lapu-lapu city, cebu)
View the documentCreation of habitat for birds in urban and rural areas
View the documentBird-watching tips
View the documentWays and reasons for documenting wildlife species and habitats
View the documentDeveloping awareness programs for youth on wildlife conservation
close this folderConsumer guides
View the documentGuide to environment-friendly shopping
View the documentCommonly used household-products which are dangerous and safer alternatives
View the documentEcotourism
View the documentGetting to know chlorofluorocarbons- (CFC) and their alternatives
View the documentHerbal medicines from nature (Department of Health-Approved)
close this folderEnvironmental action
View the documentHow to organize the community for environmental action
View the documentTaking action
View the documentCommunity vigilance for environmental protection
View the documentEnvironmentally-friendly school kids
View the documentCreation of a marine protected area
View the documentKnow the laws: report crimes against the environment!
View the documentEarthquake. preparedness
View the documentTyphoon preparedness
View the documentVolcanic eruption preparedness
close this folderRecycling/waste disposal
View the documentWhere to go to recycle in and around metro manila
View the documentProper solid waste management
close this folderPesticides
View the documentPesticide management in the home (In case you need to use these chemicals)
View the documentAlternatives to pesticides
View the documentKeeping chemicals out of your food
View the documentFood safety practices

Environment-friendly aquaculture

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic animals (fishes, shrimps, crabs, shells) and plants. It may involve seed production (hatchery-nursery) and grow-out production phases. It may be undertaken in land-based or water-based enclosures, either in fresh, brackish and marine waters.

In the Philippines, aquaculture has steadily increased its contribution to total fisheries production from only 13.7 percent in 1978 to 25.3 percent in 1987. Milkfish and tilapia farming has contributed significantly to the domestic fish supply and shrimp farming to export earnings.

While aquaculture can have considerable economic benefits, it can also have adverse environmental (socioeconomic and ecological) effects:

· Poor farming communities become poorer, with more of the benefits accruing to those already with money.

· Former natural habitats become fragmented.

· Soil, water and landscape qualities deteriorate.

· Animal and plant diversities decline.

· Harmful chemicals and microbes get into common waters.

However, this needs not be the case if aquaculture facilities are properly planned, operated, managed and monitored. Some actions aquaculture practitioners and the general public (through advocacy) can take for environment-friendly aquaculture are as follows:

· Go for sustainable, low-input, high-yield aquaculture systems.

Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems (fish-rice, fish-livestock, etc.).

Semi-intensive farming (with less feed, fertilizer and pesticides inputs) rather than intensive farming.

Seafarming (seaweed farms, oyster/mussel culture, fish cages in open marine waters) rather than in inland waters and mangrove swamps.

Polyculture (milk-fish with shrimp, crab with seabass), rather than single-species culture.

· Select native species that feed low on the food chain (plant feeders), grow fast, breed naturally, are disease-resistant and hardy. This obviates the need for feeds and chemicals, such as fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics and hormones. Exotic species (which may carry diseases and pests or displace local populations) must not be farmed unless they have gone through a very stringent quarantine.

· Select proper sites for aquaculture facilities to minimize the environmental impact. Consider other uses and users of the sites. Go for sustainable and equitable development.

· Conduct a thorough, honest socioeconomic and ecological impact assessment before proceeding with the implementation. Ask who benefits or profits and who loses in terms of jobs and income; how much land, energy, water, labor and other resources are diverted from other uses; how the wastes will affect the surrounding community.

· Practice and promote proper pond/cage/tank preparation and management. Keep buffer strips of mangroves or other trees around the ponds to minimize erosion. Minimize pond tillage that exposes acid soils. If feeds are necessary, use the appropriate kind and amount.

· Oppose the clearing of mangrove forests, wetlands and other virgin areas for new ponds. Replant mangroves or other trees along the dikes of ponds.

· Oppose stream modification and massive ground water extraction for aquaculture. They can lead to flooding, land subsidence (sinking) and reduced water supply.

· Keep freshwater fishponds weed-free and well-stocked to control mosquitoes. Be aware of the waterborne diseases present in the locality and assess whether ponds significantly add to the risks of contraction by farm workers, fish handlers and consumers. Seek professional advice from public health workers.

· Support the ban of the production, sale and use of antibiotics, hormones and pesticides in food production.

· Clean (properly treat) the waste water from aquaculture facilities to prevent adverse effects on other water users. In shrimp farms, set aside some filter ponds stocked with filter-feeding mussels and nutrient consuming seaweeds. Route the waste water (with the excess feeds and other wastes) through the filter pond before disposal into coastal waters. Since antibiotics, pesticides and hormones cannot be removed from waste waters, do not use these chemicals.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992