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close this bookIdeas for Action : Save, Recycle and Do Not Pollute (IIRR, 1992, 146 p.)
close this folderWildlife and habitat conservation
View the documentWhat not to do with wildlife
View the documentStop wildlife trade
View the documentMonitoring for the protection of wildlife
View the documentSpecial conservation campaigns for selected wildlife species
View the documentSaving an endangered endemic bird: the case of the black shama (copysychus cebuensis)
View the documentThe making of a sanctuary: the case of the olango wildlife sanctuary (lapu-lapu city, cebu)
View the documentCreation of habitat for birds in urban and rural areas
View the documentBird-watching tips
View the documentWays and reasons for documenting wildlife species and habitats
View the documentDeveloping awareness programs for youth on wildlife conservation

What not to do with wildlife

Do not hunt, kill or trap. You may be driving an important species to extinction.

Do not destroy/disturb the habitat. Remember habitats are where wildlife live.

Do not feed the animals in the mini-zoos. This may be dangerous for you and the animal.

Do not cultivate a taste for dishes made of wildlife, their eggs or their nests.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Stop wildlife trade

Wildlife trade must be controlled because it is one major cause of the depletion and loss of our country's biodiversity. Adapt appropriate techniques in organizing, information/education and networking in doing the following activities:

Weaken wildlife demand/markets.
(For cities)

· Investigate the markets of live wildlife, materials and finished products from them. Possible places to investigate:

- pet shops;
- animal collectors and pet raisers;
- restaurants and other food outlets;
-businesses involved in fashion accessories, guitar-making; and,
- manufacturers of shoes, bags, belts, etc.

· Trace sources/souppliers of wildlife.

- Ingredients to exotic dishes, e.g., Neal Bird's Nest Soup is made from the nest of Swifts.
- Decorations on guitars come from tortoise shell.
- Bags, shoes, belts may come from reptile and snake skins, animal pelts.
- Fashion jewelry can come from corals, horns and teeth of deers, crocodiles, etc.
- Tortoise shell is also made into jewelry and combs.
- Some ingredients of cosmetics like perfume and lipsticks come from whales, cruets, etc.

· Wildlife demand/markets can be further weakened by the following:

- Campaign against buying live animals or materials made of animal horns, teeth, carapace and corals as gifts. Examples are combs and jewelry from tortoise shells and earrings, pendants, necklaces, brooches and hair clips made of corals, bird feathers, ivory, etc. Pillows may also be stuffed with down.

- Boycott circuses and animal acts. Observe animals in their natural habitats.

- Never buy a caged bird and other wildlife peddled as pets.

- Campaign against/boycott restaurants serving exotic dishes from wildlife as well as those exhibiting wildlife, like talking mynas as added restaurant attraction.

· Make your opposition known. Write, visit, call, take advantage of suggestion boxes and pre-printed consumer complaint cards. Always explain your suggestions and complaints.

Weaken wildlife demand

Stop trade at its source.
(For communities near resource)

· Identify species being traded, their status (rare, endangered, threatened, endemic, migratory); laws and ordinances protecting wildlife; community values which favor or deter conservation actions.

· Create an environment hostile to wildlife collection, hunting, poaching, trapping, etc. Some ways of doing this are:

- Deny hunters access to land to hunt on (educate and organize private land owners).
- Make noise, dismantle traps, alert forest guards (in public lands).

· Explore and promote alternative livelihood -- conservation schemes for wildlife gatherers. Example: beekeeping projects.

Huntins prohibited

Controlling transport/trafficking

· Collaborate with transport companies on the denial of carriage of wild animals.

· Collaborate with Philippine Coast Guard assigned in your locality for the strict enforcement of laws protecting wildlife.

· Publicly commend support extended to wildlife conservation. On the other hand, be cautious and sparing with criticisms, except when there is no action after several appeals, petitions and dialogues

· Report exportation and importation of rare and endangered wildlife. The Philippines is a signatory to the CITES Treaty.

Controlling transport/trafficking

List of agencies to contact for reporting wildlife trade:

· Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB, DENR)

· Philippine Coast Guard

· Haribon Foundation

· Philippine Wetlands and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc.


Goodman, Billy. A Kid's Guide to How to Save the Planet. USA: Byro Press Visual Publications, Inc. 1990.

Newkirk, Ingrid. Save the Animals! 101 Easy Things You Can Do. USA: Warner Backs, Inc. 1990.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Monitoring for the protection of wildlife

Setting up nets during a bird-banding activity and taking biometrics during a bird banding activity

Wildlife provide ecological benefits and contribute to the development of medical science. There is an abundance of wildlife and wildlife resources in the Philippines but these are rapidly vanishing due to habitat destruction, uncontrolled hunting and over-harvesting. Thus, monitoring is important. Monitoring yields data needed to formulate policies, enact laws and regulations and trigger research directed towards wildlife protection and management. Likewise, through monitoring, ecotourism opportunities are identified. Local and international support for conservation efforts are also encouraged.

How to monitor

· Know the wildlife in your locality through observations and interviews.

· Check their status with existing literature (e.g., migratory endemic, rare, endangered) and indicate their numbers. Bird-banding, including biometrics, can be conducted when technical assistance of a wildlife expert is available.

· Describe their habitats. Draw a map. If possible, observe and record habitat changes and the effects of such changes to specific species.

· Find out the attitude of people towards them (e.g., Are these considered pets or are these considered sacred?).

· Find out whether or not these wildlife are protected by laws, by community norms.

· Deposit field reports and records, including documentation materials like photographs or slides, with the wildlife expert in your community. Here are some GOs and NGOs you can contact for assistance.

Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Nature Center, Diliman, Quezon City

Ecosystem Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), College, Laguna 4031

Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PWWCFI), 295 B. R. Duterte Street, Banawa, Cebu City 6000, Tel. Nos. 210-604/216-729, Fax No. (032) 210-604,

Haribon Foundation, 340 Villamor Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, Tel. Nos. 704316/784179

· Collaborate with media practitioners/wildlife experts in publishing or broadcasting your verified report for the information of community.

· Organize interested parties into a broad alliance to formulate plans. Mobilize the alliance and involve the greatest number of people in the implementation. Evaluate plans, programs and projects regularly.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Special conservation campaigns for selected wildlife species

In some instances, the protection of wildlife is so urgent that special actions are mounted. Examples are the conservation programs for the Philippine Eagle, Black Shama, Marine Turtles, Philippine Crocodile, Spotted Deer and Wild Boar.

Habitat restoration or rehabilitation

You can assist in habitat restoration or rehabilitation by:

· participation in reforestation projects, mangrove replanting and in the establishment of artificial reefs.

Habitat restoration or rehabilitation

Zoo modification and improvement programs

Ideally, wildlife should not be kept in zoos, where these are caged, out of their natural habitats and isolated from their kind. However, some zoos are operated for educational, scientific and tourism purposes. A zoo can be modified by a larger space and by-inclusion of endemic species. You can help in any of the following ways:

· Check zoo conditions and report animal cruelty and poor conditions.

· Promote visits to a good zoo. (i.e., Animals are properly cared for and their living places are clean.)

· Raise funds for animal feeds.

· Volunteer your time/services for simple but necessary chores.

· Conduct information/education campaigns, especially about endangered species inside the zoo.

Zoo modification and improvement programs

Comanagement or the management of specific projects in protected areas

Protected areas are under the responsibility and authority of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. However, the government needs support of people and organizations to properly operate them. Some organizations assist by comanaging these areas while others do by managing a project. There may be something you can also do, like any of the following:

· Volunteer as Park guard, guide, first aider and for other necessary services within your capacity.

· Donate or raise funds for garbage cans, trail signs, water buckets and other materials.

· Suggest improvements in the park site which enhances its ecological balance.

· Promote bird watching and other educational, wholesome activities.

· Conduct information/education campaigns about the wildlife found in the area

Comanagement or the management of specific projects in protected areas

Acquiring property rights of wildlife habitat to preserve an endangered species

Usually, the environmental group opts for this action when the habitat of a wildlife it seeks to preserve is located in private lands. Donations of such lands can be solicited; however, when such is not feasible, there is a need to purchase. You can do any of the following to help the lead/coordinating agency or institution:

· Raise funds.

· Conduct information and education campaigns about the project and its importance.

Acquiring property rights of wildlife habitat to preserve an endangered species

Captive breeding programs

This action is resorted to when the propagation of a race and endangered species-cannot just be left to natural processes in the wilds. Technical resources, sophisticated laboratory equipment and substantial funding may be demanded. Some of the present captive breeding programs in the country are those of the Philippine Eagle conducted by the Philippine Eagle Conservation Foundation in Davao, the Spotted

Deer by the Silliman University in Dumaguete City and the Philippine Crocodile by the DENR in Palawan. You can help in any of the following ways:

· Locate individuals of species in the wilds which are endangered due to habitat destruction, hunting, poaching or are in the custody of pet-raisers and other private individuals. Facilitate their donation to the captive breeding program.

· Conduct information/education campaigns to rehabilitate natural habitats and to protect individuals in the wilds.

· Raise funds for additional research equipment and laboratory facilities.

Captive breeding programs

You can further contribute your time and effort to the support activities of these special conservation campaigns, like community organizing, information/education activities, resource mobilization, etc.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Saving an endangered endemic bird: the case of the black shama (copysychus cebuensis)

The Black Shama is a small bird endemic to Cebu, which can only be found on this island. Once, it was believed to be extinct; but patient and careful monitoring by Ms. Perla Magsalay revealed that some very small populations exist in several towns. This discovery was significant in the ornithological world.

Black Shama

Bird description

The male Black Shama is entirely black, with a blue gloss at the back and a wattle around the eye. The female has a duller color. Immature birds are brown and spotted. It has a long tail. The bill and feet are black. This bird, known for its melodious calls, breeds between February and September.


With the forest cover of Cebu now reduced to almost nil, the remaining scarce and scattered populations survive in the undergrowth of the patches of secondary forest growth tracts, in bamboo groves and thickets. These populations are highly endangered due to habitat loss caused by deforestation and by real estate development projects.

Saving the Black Shama

Saving the Black Shama includes the following activities:

· Research. The Black Shama Project is a pilot project of the Philippine Wetlands and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PWWCFI) on endemic terrestrial birds. The project site is Casili -- part of which belongs to Mandaue City and the other part belongs to Consolacion, Cebu -- which is one of the known habitats of this bird. This consists of private lands. A real estate development project had acquired a substantial portion of these lands. The further enlargement of developed areas led to a corresponding constriction of the Black Shama habitat. Monitoring activities which were conducted daily revealed the necessity for translocation. Possible translocation sites in the province were identified and assessed. The two most probable sites are Buhisan and the Central Cebu National Park.

· Information Activties. Information was disseminated through special lectures, fore and symposia and broadcast and print media. The media exposure led to a dialogue among concerned sectors and a recommendation that the DENR would require the realty corporation to submit an Environmental Impact Assessment, especially in areas affecting their habitat. This was not followed. PWWCFI is making posters and brochures to generate greater awareness and concerns for the Black Shama.

· Lobbying for Legislation. The information dissemination campaigns and networking activities were not able to whip up sufficient mess support. But they were able to influence the municipality of Consolacion, Cebu, to pass an ordinance banning the killing and hunting of the Black Shama Congresswoman Nerissa Soon has also recently filed a bill seeking protection for this bird throughout Cebu.

· Ecotourism. Several ornithologists and bird enthusiasts in the country and abroad have visited Cebu just to see the Black Shama. Guide services and other forms of assistance were provided by PWWCFI personnel.

· Networking. PWWCFI developed linkages with local organizations and concerned individuals. Efforts along this line led to the formation of the Black Shama Foundation. Likewise, the PWWCFI linkages include international organizations like the New York Zoological Society, Wild Bird Society of Japan, International Council on Bird Preservation, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and other ornithological organizations and institutions.


Dickenson, E.,R. Kennedy and K. Parks. The Birds of the Philippines. BOU Checklist No.2, British Ornithologists Union, Henry Ltd., Dorset Press, Dorchester, Great Britain. 1991.

DuPont, J.E. Philippine Birds. Monograph Series 2, Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware, U.S.A. 1971

Gonzales, P. and C. Rees. Birds of the Philippines. The Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc., Kyodo Printing Co., Manila, Philippines. 1988.

Magsalay, P. The Ecology and Population Status of the Black Shama Copsychus cebuensis, Steer, From Cebu Philippines. (An unpublished thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School, University of San Carlos, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in Biology). 1983

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

The making of a sanctuary: the case of the olango wildlife sanctuary (lapu-lapu city, cebu)

The Olango Wildlife Sanctuary lies on the southern shore of Olango Island, an island six miles off the east coast of mainland Cebu. It was declared a protected area by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No.903, signed by former President Corazon C. Aquino on May 14, 1992. The sanctuary has a total land area of 920 hectares. This wetland is internationally significant because it supports the largest concentration of migratory waders found in the country. These migratory birds include endangered species like the Asiatic Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus) and the Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes). Like most wetlands, Olango is a nursery and breeding ground of commercially important fishes. Forthe local residents, it is a source of food and livelihood.

The Olango Wildlife Sanctuary

Lessons learned

· There is power in research-based data.

The PWWCFI's discovery of the presence of 40,000 to 60,000 migratory birds in the area had great impact on bird studies on the East Asian Flyway. The East Asian Flyway, which includes the Philippines, is one of the most important shorebird and water-bird migration pathways in the world. A total of 77 species of migratory birds use this flyway. The Philippines hosts over half of this number of species. So far, Olango Island supports the largest concentration of migratory waders in the country. Up to today, PWWCFI regularly conducts bird counts, bird-banding and habitat monitoring. Data gathered from these activities supported the recommendation for the granting of protected area status to Olango.

· A broad multisectoral alliance is indispensable in moving government machinery towards the protection of the environment.

To move the government agencies in the region into endorsing favorably the recommendations of PWWCFI, a number of NGOs and concerned individuals in the region and in the nation issued statements of support and position papers. These supporters either used their resources or provided such resources to PWWCFI in convincing government officials of the importance of protecting Olango. The support of conservation organizations and individuals from other rations was another factor in the success. This alliance was gained through information and networking activities.

· The trust of the local people is gained through integration with the local residents.

The presence of PWWCFI personnel in the area was a factor in reversing the initial opposition of the local people to the declaration of Olango as protected area. PWWCFI identified the misconceptions that had to be eliminated and the socioeconomic needs of the people which had to be responded to.

There is a lot of potential for ecotourism which will add to the coffers of the local treasury and contribute to a better quality of life for the local residents. To be erected soon are boardwalks, which will facilitate passage through but will limit disturbance in the sanctuary; and, a Nature Center, which is envisioned to house research and information facilities. Technical assistance for alternative conservation livelihood schemes, like fish culture in cages, shall also be extended to the marginalized sectors like the fishermen.


PWCF Olango Brochure. (in process), Magsalay, P. The Philippine Wetland Conservation Programme. 1991. Paper presented during the Fourth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, held in Caracas, Venezuela, February 10-21,1992.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Creation of habitat for birds in urban and rural areas

· A small grassland with few numbers of fruiting trees can encourage the presence of various kinds of birds in cities.

· Domesticated birds like pigeons can be taught to feed in one particular city area.

· Establishing nesting and nesting areas like heavily canopied trees along the sidewalks.

· Putting up nesting boxes in the roofs.

· Planting more flowering and fruiting trees in the backyards can definitely invite birds.

· Construct a mini-house-like shelters to be placed in the midpart of the tree.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Bird-watching tips

Bird-watching is fun!

You can do this as a hobby or pastime. This can also be educational. Moreover, bird-watching can train you for careers requiring field research or activities. Many of those who are now ornithologists and conservationists started as bird-watchers.

What to wear

· Clothes with colors that blend with the surroundings; earth colors are preferable like brown shirts and pants. Bright colors will disturb birds.

· Hat or cap (with fasteners for greater convenience)

· Comfortable footwear (for watching shore birds wear wading shoes or rubber shoes and socks)

What to bring

· Food

· Small record notebook and pencil

· Binoculars, preferably 10 x 50 (though you can still do without)

· Bird pictures or bird guidebook like:

Dupont, J. E. Philippine Birds Monograph. Series 2. Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware, USA. 1971.

Gonzales, P. and C. Rees. Birds of the Philippines. The Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc. Kyodo Printing Co., Manila, Philippines. 1988.

When to watch

· Forest birds and other bird-early morning (5:30 -9:00 a.m.) or late afternoon (4:00 - 8:00 p.m.)

· Shore bird-low tide, immediately following a high tide (refer to tide table/calendars with tide notations)

Where to watch

· Near creeks, rivers, lakes, shoreline areas

· Mudflats and other coastal areas

· Mangrove forests

· Open areas near forests

· Trees with fruits, plants with flowers

· Forests and jungles

Techniques in bird-watching

· Sun must be at your back.

· Watch birds in small groups.

· Listen to bird calls.

· Estimate body size, measurement of bill, wings, legs.

· Note colors and bill shapes.

· Do activities in the area quietly.

Some bird-watching groups for information exchange

The Haribon Foundation for Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc., 340 Villamor Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, Tel. Nos. 704316/784179, Fax No.: 631-2061

Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc., 295 B. R. Duterte St., Banawa
Cebu City 6000, Tel. Nos. 210-604/216-729, Fax No.: (032) 210604

Haribon Chapters
Haribon CLSO
Haribon Palawan
Haribon Cebu
Haribon Davao
Haribon Pagadian
Haribon Iligan
Haribon UPLB

At all times abide by: The fieldman's credo:

Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints, kill nothing but time.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Ways and reasons for documenting wildlife species and habitats


· Field Notes Recording. All observations (which include time, day and place/area of observations), like number of animals food items, foot tracts, behavior and many others, should be recorded in a small field notebook. All field notes will then be transferred to a larger but organized data notebook (also known as journal).

· Print Film Documentation. As the saying goes: "A picture paints a thousand words." Pictures depicting wildlife species and habitats can clearly catch the past, the present and the possible future scenario of the wildlife species.

· Bird calls, songs or lizard sounds, cries and howling sounds can be tape-recorded. A simple Walkman-type of sound recording can be produced.

· If available, a documentary film can be made particularly for the natural history of endangered and unique species.


· can be a good audio-visual aid for conservation campaigns;

· would allow and facilitate easier review of the behavior and biology of wildlife;

· can be instrumental in assessing the environmental make-up or conditions of a particular place or ecosystem; and,

· can depict cultural, aesthetic and historical values to local people.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Developing awareness programs for youth on wildlife conservation

· Identify sources of wildlife species where students/youth can easily travel/conduct field trip.

· Make a three-day ecology camp program for both elementary and high school students.

· Incorporate biodiversity conservation practices into management of forests and protected areas.

· Use flagship species to increase support for conservation.

· Encourage youth to develop natural botanical garden to strengthen and widen perspectives of natural environment of wildlife species.

· Ask students or youth to support specific wildlife species for both off-site and on-site conservation methods.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992