Cover Image
close this bookRecording and Using Indigenous Knowledge: A Manual (IIRR, 1996, 211 p.)
close this folderPart 1 Indigenous knowledge and development
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentHow the manual was compiled
View the documentHow to use the manual
View the documentWhat is indigenous knowledge?
View the documentWho knows what?
View the documentCharacteristics of local systems
View the documentWhy is indigenous knowledge useful?
View the documentHelping communities conserve their IK
View the documentUsing indigenous knowledge in development
View the documentRecording IK in communities
View the documentIntellectual property rights
close this folderPart 2 Recording and assessment methodologies
close this folderRecording methods
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSources and documentation of IK
close this folderSample selection
View the documentHow to draw a sample
View the documentIdentifying indigenous specialists
close this folderObservation and interviewing
View the documentCase studies
View the documentField observation
View the documentIn-depth interviews
View the documentInterviewing
View the documentParticipant observation
View the documentParticipative technology analysis
View the documentSurveys
close this folderWorking with groups
View the documentBrainstorming
View the documentFive questions
View the documentGames
View the documentGroup discussions
View the documentRole play
View the documentStrengths and weaknesses
View the documentSWOT analysis
View the documentVillage reflections
View the documentVillage workshop
close this folderUsing diagram
View the documentFlow chart
View the documentHistorical comparison
View the documentIllustrations and diagrams
View the documentMapping
View the documentMatrix
View the documentModeling bioresource flows
View the documentSeasonal Pattern chart
View the documentSorting and ranking
View the documentTaxonomies
View the documentTransect
View the documentVenn (or chapti) diagramming
View the documentWebbing
close this folderAudio-visual media
View the documentCassette documentation
View the documentParticipatory video
View the documentPhoto/slide documentation
close this folderPart 3 Assessment of indigenous knowledge
View the documentAssessing IK
View the documentCriteria for assessing IK
View the documentTapping assessment
View the documentUsing western science methods to assess IK
View the documentMonitoring and evaluation
close this folderPart 4 Mini-case studies - How development can build on IK
View the documentMini-case studies
View the documentProblem identification and prioritization in Kiko Rosa, Philippines
View the documentCommunity manged health in Pinagsanjaan, Philippines
View the documentIncorporation of local free species in an agroforestry project in Layong Mabilog Philippines
View the documentLocal vegetable varieties for home gardening programs
View the documentTraditional animal dispersal schemes in Cavite, Philippines
View the documentIncreasing food Production in Negros, Philippines
View the documentOvercoming labor shortages through indigenous mutual-help groups
View the documentPromoting the use of IK in Venezuela
View the documentFarmers' experiments in teak germination in Sri Lanka
View the documentPromoting an indigenous savings scheme in Ethiopia
close this folderPart 5 - Question guides
View the documentQuestion guides
View the documentGender and indigenous knowledge
View the documentFarmer-to-farmer extension and farmer experimentation
View the documentSoil fertility
View the documentCropping systems
View the documentGardening
View the documentAgroforestry
View the documentWatershed management
View the documentEnvironment, natural resources. and biodiversity
View the documentCoastal resource s management
View the documentAquaculture
View the documentAnimal husbandry and healthcare
View the documentFood and nutrition
View the documentReproductive health and family planning
View the documentWater and sanitation
View the documentHealth financing schemes
View the documentHealthcare systems
View the documentOccupational health
View the documentOrganizations and leadership
View the documentCredit and savings
View the documentEnterprise development
View the documentCommunication
close this folderPart 6 - Resources
View the documentAbbreviations and definitions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAddresses
View the documentProject staff and contributors

Promoting the use of IK in Venezuela


Trujillo is an agricultural state in a pre-Andean region of Venezuela. Most farms in the region are small and poor in resources. The main crops include corn, plantain, cassava, sugar cane, and pineapple. Some farmers keep dual purpose cattle for milk and meat. Among other problems, land degradation has led to a considerable decline in yields.

Researchers and extensionists at the local research station are used to working on their own when it comes to setting research agendas and carrying out experiments. Farmer participation is seldom sought. Local knowledge is ignored.

In 1992 an attempt was made to convince these researchers and extensionists to incorporate the study and application of IK as part of their daily routine. A 10-day workshop, spread over 10 weeks, covered the theoretical bases for IK and gave a chance for hands-on experience. This workshop, carried out by staff from the Center for Tropical Alternative Agriculture and Sustainable Development at the University of the Andes was not successful. However, some lessons were learned concerning IK promotion:

- Institutions should, as part of their philosophy, forge partnerships with farmers and farm families.

- Do not assume that extensionists are sensitive to IK issues.

- Do not spend too much time talking about IK related issues. The best way to learn is through hands-on experience—by listening to, learning from, and sharing with farmers and farm families.

- Break an old habit. Organize sessions where extensionists are required to listen to and learn from farmers. Perhaps this will prompt a change in attitude and in time lead to true partnership between extensionists and farmers.

- Be patient. Changes in behaviors and attitudes do not occur overnight. Bear in mind that some traditional extensionists feel threatened by the IK approach.

More specifically, the IK workshop failed because:

- Too much time was spent trying to explain IK in holistic terms. The institution is commodity oriented, not people oriented. Specialists were expected to devote all their efforts to their assigned crop.

- The culture of collaboration among institutions is weak. Some participants showed positive attitudes, but there were many who felt that working with IK was the University's job.

Compiled by Consuelo Quiroz, Versik (For address see Addresses.)