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close this bookTrainer's Guide for Training of Elected Officials (HABITAT)
close this folderPart V - Miscellaneous trainer resources
View the documentOverview
View the documentTrainers notes
View the documentPosition of the Khulla city council
View the documentPosition of the Hawkers
View the documentReferences


This final part of the Trainer's Guide is being used for the two remaining resources we have to offer trainers who wish to conduct training for local elected leaders using any of the handbooks in the Elected Leadership series. These resources include:

1. Trainer's notes that include scoring keys, handouts, rationales, and suggestions.
2. Sources of published information for the trainer who wants to learn more about training and the trainer's role.

Trainers notes

To a large extent, each of the workshops in the handbook series is a selfcontained training package. Each is designed to provide participant readings and trainer concept material for developing presentations (the essays), instructions for both the trainer and participants in carrying out exercises, descriptions of roles and case situations, and worksheets for completing individual and small group tasks. However, there are some materials that have been excluded from the handbooks and placed in Part V of this guide for the trainer's use at the appropriate time and place. We call them trainer's notes. Each of these trainer's notes is described below along with its reason for being placed in this guide and labeled to identify the workshop and exercise to which it pertains.

Handbook No. 2, The Councillor as Policy-maker, Exercise 2.2, A Policy-maker's Quiz

Trainer's note. Just below is the key for scoring the policy-maker's quiz. Either use it as a handout or post the correct response to each of the 16 statements on a chartpad.


1 = problem

9 = goal

2 = strategy

10 = goal

3 = strategy

11 = problem

4 = goal

12 = strategy

5 = policy

13 = policy

6 = problem

14 = policy

7 = goal

15 = strategy

8 = policy

16 = problem

Handbook No. 3, The Councillor as Decision-maker, Exercise 3.4, Simulation: The Allocation Decision

Trainer's note. This exercise on allocating funds among competing interests could be used to add a financial policy dimension and increase the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Financier by 120 minutes.

The United States dollar, which is recognized worldwide, has been selected for the simulation rather than the rupee or shilling which vary in value from country to country. However, you may substitute any appropriate national currency.

Handbook No. 4, The Councillor as Communicator, Exercise 4.1, Warmup Exercise: How Many Squares Do You See?

Trainer's note. Councillors participating in this exercise always see different numbers of squares. The numbers perceived and reported will vary from as few as 16 to as many as 30. As shown below in the exercise key, the largest number of squares that participants will report is 30. After all participants have reported on the number of squares they see, the trainer can use the key to show how a participant might perceive as many as 30 squares in the original figure.

One objective of the exercise is to recognize the value of feedback as a means for correcting first impressions. From the reports of participants who perceive a larger number of squares, participants who see fewer squares are motivated to engage in additional inquiry to discover what they overlooked the first time. Getting people to take a second look is an important step in demonstrating that differences can stimulate thinking and avoid the tendency to accept the first idea that comes along. Participants can be encouraged to take a second look if the trainer does not permit discussion of the origin of the number of squares until all participants have reported on how many squares they see.

Another objective of the exercise is to show that reality is in the eye of the beholder, and that individuals in a group may perceive an object, a person, or an event in very different ways. With this in mind, the trainer's task is to accept all answers about the number of squares reported simply as data and not judge any of them as right or wrong, good or bad. Non-judgemental trainer behaviour helps participants see the value in differing points of view rather than in only a single right answer (e.g., seeing only 16 squares is bad, but 30 is good).

Shown below is a key that shows the various combinations of squares that can be found by participants who take part in the exercise. Silent reporting by each participant and public reporting of results by the trainer avoids embarrassment to anyone. It also ensures truthfulness in reporting since it gets the "real" answers out before the larger numbers are revealed.

Key count the squares

Handbook No. 6, The Councillor as Enabler, Exercise 6.1, Warm-up Exercise, The Nine Dots.

Trainer's note. This is an exercise in creative thinking. Most participants attempt to solve the problem by drawing lines within the boundaries formed by the nine dots. They soon become frustrated and experience a mental block. A few participants will recognize the futility in this approach. They will seek the solution by going outside the boundaries of the nine-dot figure. Eventually, these participants will find the answer which is shown in the figure below (the key).

A typical response of participants on seeing the solution is, "Aha"! But, why couldn't we see that?" They couldn't see it because they were, like so many of us are when faced with complex problems, confined in a straitjacket of conventional thinking.

The nine-dot exercise serves as a reminder that councillors are often faced with problems that can't be solved with conventional thinking. Therefore, it is necessary for them, at times, to extend their minds "beyond the boundaries" of the situation to find the answer.

The Key

Handbook No. 7, The Councillor as Negotiator, Exercise 7.5, Role Play/ Case Study: Hawker/Council Confrontation.

Trainer's note. Information for the two conflicting roles has been prepared as duplicatible handout material. On the next page is information on the position of the city council and on the following page information on the hawker's position. Give council and hawker role players only the handout that pertains to their respective roles.

Handbook No. 8, The Councillor as Financier, Exercise 8.4, Case Study: Unintentional Tax Assessment Policy

Trainer's note. This exercise on neglect in making policy could be used to add another aspect of learning about policy-making and would increase the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Policy-maker by about 90 minutes.

Position of the Khulla city council

The city leaders, and particularly the city council, are anxious to have a successful conference, free of unnecessary noise, hawking, begging, and street congestion. They have asked the hawkers, through their representatives, to abandon the streets during the conference. These discussions have not been successful. In fact, the vendor representatives have threatened to stage demonstrations and carry out other acts of militancy if the council denies them the right to operate during the conference. The council is deeply concerned about these threats. It wants to maintain good relations with the hawkers but is determined to keep them from interfering with its plans for a successful conference.

One of the councillors recently attended a workshop on a technique for negotiating agreement regarded highly by international business and government leaders. The technique is known as principled negotiation. After an explanation of the process and its advantages, the council agrees to make use of the new technique in its dealings with the street vendor representatives.

Position of the Hawkers

The hawkers want full and continuous access to conference participants during their stay in Khulla. They fear the city council will deny them this access by forcing them to abandon the streets and, consequently, lose out on a rare and substantial source of profit. They see the council as unbelievably rigid and unfair on this point. Through their representatives they are determined to protect their rights any way they must - if necessary, by deliberate acts of militancy against the police and even the conference goers. In general, their strategy is to demand that the council leave the hawkers alone during the conference to run their businesses as usual or suffer painful consequences.


For ideas on training techniques and the trainer's role

American Society of Training and Development, Training and Development Handbook, 3rd ed. (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1987). Considered by many to be the foundation text for trainers world-wide. Hundreds of pages covering every conceivable aspect of the training task.

Becker, Christine, So Now You're a Trainer: A Practical Guide for Practical Trainers (Washington, D.C., International City Management Association, 1979). A primer for new trainers covering ways to plan, schedule, and design training programmes.

Human Resource Development Annuals, 1972-1994 (San Diego, CA., Pfeiffer and Company). Unquestionably the most comprehensive and versatile collection of training resources ever assembled. A new annual comes out each year containing new lecturettes, structured experiences, and instruments. Expensive. Ideal for the trainer who wants it all and can afford it. Annuals available in loose-leaf and paperbound formats.

Margolis, Fredric H. and Bell, Chip R., Managing the Learning Process (Minneapolis, MN, Lakewood Publications, 1984). Basic; good stuff for trainers looking for step-by-step guidance on the conduct of training.

McLagan, Patricia A. Helping Others Learn: Designing Programs For Adults (Reading, MA., Addison-Wesley, 1978). A workbook for trainers on creating their own learning designs.

Newstrom, John W. and Scannell, Edward E., Games Trainers Play (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1980). Packed with over 100 games and exercises to help trainers break the ice with a new group. Recent series additions include More Games Trainers Play and Still More Games Trainers Play.

Pike, Robert W., Creative Training Techniques Handbook (Minneapolis, MN, Lakewood Publications, 1989). One of the best sources of information on how to give powerful presentations.

UNCHS (Habitat) publications on training programme design including Guide for Designing Effective Human Settlements Training Programmes, Manual for Training Needs Assessment in Human Settlements Organizations, and A Guide to National Training Needs Assessment for Human Settlements: A Competencybased Approach. (See p. 73 for annotations on these publications.)

2. For ideas on problem solving and creative thinking

Adams, James L., Conceptual Blockbusting (Reading, MA., Addison-Wesley, 1986).

de Bono, Edward, Lateral Thinking (New York, Harper-Colophon, 1973).

Delbecq, Andre L., Van de yen, Andrew, and Gustafson, David H. Group Techniques for Program Planning (Glenview, IL., Scott-Foresman and Co., 1975). The most complete discussion of the Nominal Group Technique available.

Koberg, Don and Bagnall, Jim, The Universal Traveler, (Los Altos, CA, New Horizons Ed., 1991). A compendium of creative ideas processes and problem solving techniques.

Oech, Roger von, A Whack On The Side Of The Head (New York, Warner Books, Inc., 1982).

Osborn, Alex F., Applied Imagination (New York, Scribner's, 1954). Basics on the development and use of brainstorming in an older book written by the creator of the technique.

Zemke, Ron, and Kramlinger, Tom, Figuring Things Out: A Trainers Guide to Needs and Task Analysis (Reading, MA., Addison-Wesley, 1987).

3. For more specialized needs of trainers

Anderson, Ronald H., Selecting and Developing Media for Instruction (2nd ea.) (New York, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, 1983).

Horn, R., and Cleaves, H., The Guide to Simulation Games for Education and Training, 4th ed. (Beverly Hills, CA., Sage Publications, 1980).

Maier, Norman R.F., Solem, A.R., and Maier, A.A., The Role Playing Technique: A Handbook for Management and Leadership Practice (San Diego, CA., University Associates, 1975).

Pfeiffer, William J., and Heslin, Richard, Instrumentation in Human Relations Training (San Diego, CA., University Associates, 1973).

Srinivasan, Lyra, Tools for Community Participation: A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques (New York, PROWLWESS/UNDP, 1990).

UNCHS (Habitat) publication Guide for Managing Change for Urban Managers and Trainers. (See p. 73 for annotation.)

4. For trainers interested in case study material

International City Management Association, Managing Local Government: Cases in Decision Making (Washington, D.C., ICMA, 1990).

Meyer, Kenneth C., et. al., Practising Public Management: A Casebook (New York. St. Martin's Press. 1983).

5. For trainers who want to take advantage of UNCHS (Habitat) training publications

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Guide for Designing Effective Human Settlements Training Programmes (Nairobi, UNCHS, 1991). A basic guide for trainers who want practical details on how to design and conduct training, including a detailed trainer's tool kit.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Guide for Managing Change for Urban Managers and Trainers (Nairobi, UNCHS, 1989). A book of concepts about managing the change process in government organizations with trainer notes on how to plan, implement, and manage the various training events.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Manual for Training Needs Assessment in Human Settlements Organizations (Nairobi, UNCHS, 1987). A systematic method for assessing organizational training needs following a unique step-by-step approach.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), A Guide to National Training Needs Assessment for Human Settlements: A Competency-based Approach (Nairobi, UNCHS, 1992). A guide for building capacity within a developing country to assess, at a national level, the training needs of administrative, professional, and technical personnel concerned with human settlements.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Manual for Collaborative Organizational Assessment in Human Settlements Organizations (Nairobi, UNCHS, 1992). A step-by-step guide for analysing the effectiveness and efficiency of day-to-day performance in agencies and authorities responsible for providing public goods and services based on participatory management concepts and practices.