To a large extent, each of the workshops in the handbook series
is a selfcontained training package. Each is designed to provide participant
readings and trainer concept material for developing presentations (the essays),
instructions for both the trainer and participants in carrying out exercises,
descriptions of roles and case situations, and worksheets for completing
individual and small group tasks. However, there are some materials that have
been excluded from the handbooks and placed in Part V of this guide for the
trainer's use at the appropriate time and place. We call them trainer's notes.
Each of these trainer's notes is described below along with its reason for being
placed in this guide and labeled to identify the workshop and exercise to which
Handbook No. 2, The Councillor as Policy-maker, Exercise 2.2, A
Trainer's note. Just below is the key for scoring the
policy-maker's quiz. Either use it as a handout or post the correct response to
each of the 16 statements on a chartpad.
1 = problem
9 = goal
2 = strategy
10 = goal
3 = strategy
11 = problem
4 = goal
12 = strategy
5 = policy
13 = policy
6 = problem
14 = policy
7 = goal
15 = strategy
8 = policy
16 = problem
Handbook No. 3, The Councillor as Decision-maker, Exercise 3.4,
Simulation: The Allocation Decision
Trainer's note. This exercise on allocating funds among
competing interests could be used to add a financial policy dimension and
increase the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Financier by 120 minutes.
The United States dollar, which is recognized worldwide, has
been selected for the simulation rather than the rupee or shilling which vary in
value from country to country. However, you may substitute any appropriate
Handbook No. 4, The Councillor as Communicator, Exercise 4.1,
Warmup Exercise: How Many Squares Do You See?
Trainer's note. Councillors participating in this exercise
always see different numbers of squares. The numbers perceived and reported will
vary from as few as 16 to as many as 30. As shown below in the exercise key, the
largest number of squares that participants will report is 30. After all
participants have reported on the number of squares they see, the trainer can
use the key to show how a participant might perceive as many as 30 squares in
the original figure.
One objective of the exercise is to recognize the value of
feedback as a means for correcting first impressions. From the reports of
participants who perceive a larger number of squares, participants who see fewer
squares are motivated to engage in additional inquiry to discover what they
overlooked the first time. Getting people to take a second look is an important
step in demonstrating that differences can stimulate thinking and avoid the
tendency to accept the first idea that comes along. Participants can be
encouraged to take a second look if the trainer does not permit discussion of
the origin of the number of squares until all participants have reported on how
many squares they see.
Another objective of the exercise is to show that reality is in
the eye of the beholder, and that individuals in a group may perceive an object,
a person, or an event in very different ways. With this in mind, the trainer's
task is to accept all answers about the number of squares reported simply as
data and not judge any of them as right or wrong, good or bad. Non-judgemental
trainer behaviour helps participants see the value in differing points of view
rather than in only a single right answer (e.g., seeing only 16 squares is bad,
but 30 is good).
Shown below is a key that shows the various combinations of
squares that can be found by participants who take part in the exercise. Silent
reporting by each participant and public reporting of results by the trainer
avoids embarrassment to anyone. It also ensures truthfulness in reporting since
it gets the "real" answers out before the larger numbers are revealed.
Key count the squares
Handbook No. 6, The Councillor as Enabler, Exercise 6.1, Warm-up
Exercise, The Nine Dots.
Trainer's note. This is an exercise in creative thinking. Most
participants attempt to solve the problem by drawing lines within the boundaries
formed by the nine dots. They soon become frustrated and experience a mental
block. A few participants will recognize the futility in this approach. They
will seek the solution by going outside the boundaries of the nine-dot figure.
Eventually, these participants will find the answer which is shown in the figure
below (the key).
A typical response of participants on seeing the solution is,
"Aha"! But, why couldn't we see that?" They couldn't see it because they were,
like so many of us are when faced with complex problems, confined in a
straitjacket of conventional thinking.
The nine-dot exercise serves as a reminder that councillors are
often faced with problems that can't be solved with conventional thinking.
Therefore, it is necessary for them, at times, to extend their minds "beyond the
boundaries" of the situation to find the answer.
Handbook No. 7, The Councillor as Negotiator, Exercise 7.5, Role
Play/ Case Study: Hawker/Council Confrontation.
Trainer's note. Information for the two conflicting roles has
been prepared as duplicatible handout material. On the next page is information
on the position of the city council and on the following page information on the
hawker's position. Give council and hawker role players only the handout that
pertains to their respective roles.
Handbook No. 8, The Councillor as Financier, Exercise 8.4, Case
Study: Unintentional Tax Assessment Policy
Trainer's note. This exercise on neglect in making policy could
be used to add another aspect of learning about policy-making and would increase
the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Policy-maker by about 90