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close this bookTrainer's Guide for Training of Elected Officials (HABITAT)
close this folderPart V - Miscellaneous trainer resources
View the documentOverview
View the documentTrainers notes
View the documentPosition of the Khulla city council
View the documentPosition of the Hawkers
View the documentReferences

Trainers notes

To a large extent, each of the workshops in the handbook series is a selfcontained training package. Each is designed to provide participant readings and trainer concept material for developing presentations (the essays), instructions for both the trainer and participants in carrying out exercises, descriptions of roles and case situations, and worksheets for completing individual and small group tasks. However, there are some materials that have been excluded from the handbooks and placed in Part V of this guide for the trainer's use at the appropriate time and place. We call them trainer's notes. Each of these trainer's notes is described below along with its reason for being placed in this guide and labeled to identify the workshop and exercise to which it pertains.

Handbook No. 2, The Councillor as Policy-maker, Exercise 2.2, A Policy-maker's Quiz

Trainer's note. Just below is the key for scoring the policy-maker's quiz. Either use it as a handout or post the correct response to each of the 16 statements on a chartpad.


1 = problem

9 = goal

2 = strategy

10 = goal

3 = strategy

11 = problem

4 = goal

12 = strategy

5 = policy

13 = policy

6 = problem

14 = policy

7 = goal

15 = strategy

8 = policy

16 = problem

Handbook No. 3, The Councillor as Decision-maker, Exercise 3.4, Simulation: The Allocation Decision

Trainer's note. This exercise on allocating funds among competing interests could be used to add a financial policy dimension and increase the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Financier by 120 minutes.

The United States dollar, which is recognized worldwide, has been selected for the simulation rather than the rupee or shilling which vary in value from country to country. However, you may substitute any appropriate national currency.

Handbook No. 4, The Councillor as Communicator, Exercise 4.1, Warmup Exercise: How Many Squares Do You See?

Trainer's note. Councillors participating in this exercise always see different numbers of squares. The numbers perceived and reported will vary from as few as 16 to as many as 30. As shown below in the exercise key, the largest number of squares that participants will report is 30. After all participants have reported on the number of squares they see, the trainer can use the key to show how a participant might perceive as many as 30 squares in the original figure.

One objective of the exercise is to recognize the value of feedback as a means for correcting first impressions. From the reports of participants who perceive a larger number of squares, participants who see fewer squares are motivated to engage in additional inquiry to discover what they overlooked the first time. Getting people to take a second look is an important step in demonstrating that differences can stimulate thinking and avoid the tendency to accept the first idea that comes along. Participants can be encouraged to take a second look if the trainer does not permit discussion of the origin of the number of squares until all participants have reported on how many squares they see.

Another objective of the exercise is to show that reality is in the eye of the beholder, and that individuals in a group may perceive an object, a person, or an event in very different ways. With this in mind, the trainer's task is to accept all answers about the number of squares reported simply as data and not judge any of them as right or wrong, good or bad. Non-judgemental trainer behaviour helps participants see the value in differing points of view rather than in only a single right answer (e.g., seeing only 16 squares is bad, but 30 is good).

Shown below is a key that shows the various combinations of squares that can be found by participants who take part in the exercise. Silent reporting by each participant and public reporting of results by the trainer avoids embarrassment to anyone. It also ensures truthfulness in reporting since it gets the "real" answers out before the larger numbers are revealed.

Key count the squares

Handbook No. 6, The Councillor as Enabler, Exercise 6.1, Warm-up Exercise, The Nine Dots.

Trainer's note. This is an exercise in creative thinking. Most participants attempt to solve the problem by drawing lines within the boundaries formed by the nine dots. They soon become frustrated and experience a mental block. A few participants will recognize the futility in this approach. They will seek the solution by going outside the boundaries of the nine-dot figure. Eventually, these participants will find the answer which is shown in the figure below (the key).

A typical response of participants on seeing the solution is, "Aha"! But, why couldn't we see that?" They couldn't see it because they were, like so many of us are when faced with complex problems, confined in a straitjacket of conventional thinking.

The nine-dot exercise serves as a reminder that councillors are often faced with problems that can't be solved with conventional thinking. Therefore, it is necessary for them, at times, to extend their minds "beyond the boundaries" of the situation to find the answer.

The Key

Handbook No. 7, The Councillor as Negotiator, Exercise 7.5, Role Play/ Case Study: Hawker/Council Confrontation.

Trainer's note. Information for the two conflicting roles has been prepared as duplicatible handout material. On the next page is information on the position of the city council and on the following page information on the hawker's position. Give council and hawker role players only the handout that pertains to their respective roles.

Handbook No. 8, The Councillor as Financier, Exercise 8.4, Case Study: Unintentional Tax Assessment Policy

Trainer's note. This exercise on neglect in making policy could be used to add another aspect of learning about policy-making and would increase the length of a workshop on The Councillor as Policy-maker by about 90 minutes.