Protected areas: a tool for biological diversity conservation
Protected areas: a tool for
biological diversity conservation
PROTECTED AREAS: A TOOL FOR BIOLOGICAL DIYERSITY-CONSERVATION
1. The Philippines, through-the National Integrated
Protected Areas System (NIPAS), has adopted eight categories of protected areas:
strict nature reserves, nature parks, natural monuments, wildlife sanctuaries,
protected landscapes/seascapes, resource reserves, natural biotic areas and
multiple-use areas. These categories represent a range of varying level of human
2. Strict Nature Reserves. To protect nature and
maintain/natural processes in an undisturbed state. They provide ecologically
representative examples of the natural environment and make these areas
available for scientific stubby, environmental monitoring and education and for
the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary
3. Nature Parks. - To protect outstanding natural
and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific,
educational and recreational use. These are relatively large natural areas not
materially altered by human activity and where commercial extractive uses are
4. Natural Monuments. To protect and preserve
nationally significant natural 'features because of their special interest or
unique characteristics. These are relatively small areas focused on protection
of specific features.
5. Wildlife Sanctuary. To ensure the natural
condition necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of
species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these
require specific human manipulation for their perpetuation.
6. Protected Landscapes/Seascapes. To maintain
nationally significant areas which are characteristic of the harmonious
interaction of resident people and land while providing opportunities for public
enjoyment ' through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and
economic activity of these areas.
7. Resource-Reserve. To protect the natural
resources of the area for future designation and prevent or contain development
activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of
objectives based on appropriate knowledge and planning.
8. Natural Biotic Area; To foster the way of life of
societies living in harmony with the environment to adapt to modern technology
at their pace.
9. Multiple-Use Area (i.e., Extractive Reserve? Game
Ranch and Recreation Area). To provide for the sustained production of water,
timber, wildlife, pasture and outdoor recreation, with the conservation of
nature primarily oriented to the system of economic activities.
Benefits of protected :areas
Protected areas provide the following year-round benefits:
· Protect ecosystems
essential to maintain life-support cervices, to conserve wild life and to
advance scientific research.:
· Protect culturally
important landscapes and traditional sites of activities of great significance
to indigenous people, including sacred places and historic monuments built on
recreational and educational uses of natural, modified 'end cultivated
ecologically important areas which, when damaged, endanger public welfare.
· Protect species
and population that are highly sensitive to human disturbance, those important
in medicine and those which enhance the attractiveness of
ecologically important areas
· which, when damaged, endanger
· Protect the habitats critical
to harvested, migratory or threatened species.
· Protected area
· Management of
protected areas is to be done by a protected area management board. The board is
madeup of local representatives, DENR officials, NGOs and indigenous cultural
communities. Management plans are to be designed using various management zones
to regulate activities within the protected