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close this bookInternational Reader in the Management of Library, Information and Archive Services (UNESCO, 1987, 684 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentTo the reader
close this folder1. Management, information and development
close this folder1.1 Managing information: to what end?
View the documentOn the Librarianship of Poverty
View the documentInfrastructure for the development of an information policy
View the documentThe use of archive material of the countries of the socialist community for national economic purposes
View the documentThe special utility of archives for tie developing world
close this folder1.2 Administration in developing countries
View the documentThe Scope of Management and Administration Problems in Development
close this folder1.3 Management and the information service
View the documentOrganization: in general and in principle
View the documentManagement Training and Background
View the documentOn library management (I)
View the documentOn library management (II)
View the documentThe library manager
close this folder1.4 How scientific is management?
View the documentAdvances in archival management science
View the documentLibrary administration & new management systems
close this folder1.5 Case study: management of information in China
View the documentManagement Development and Its Practice in Chinese Library and Information Services
close this folder2. Managing information: Introduction
close this folder2.1 Management of an information service
View the documentManagement and policies of an information unit
View the documentOrganizing and operating an information and documentation centre
View the document2.2 Records management
close this folder3. Planning the service
close this folder3.1 Planning
View the documentSpecialized problems of practical librarianship: planning
View the documentArchive planning
close this folder3.2 Constraints on planning: the state
View the documentThe Archives of Argentina: Problems and Solutions
View the documentGovernment policies affecting the development and growth of libraries in Southeast Asia - a discussion
close this folder3.3 Constraints on planning: the local administration
View the documentThe Library and the Political Processes
close this folder3.4 Public relations
View the documentLibraries and the world outside
View the documentPublic relations in libraries: the Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon (Lyons City Library)
close this folder3.5 The needs of users
View the documentUser studies in university libraries
close this folder3.6 Marketing
View the documentMarketing in information work
close this folder4. Organization and control
close this folder4.1 Organization and communication
View the documentOrganisational structure and communication
View the documentAnnual archives report
close this folder4.2 Specialization in information work
View the documentSubject departments in public libraries
View the documentSubject departments: summary of a debate
close this folder4.3 Centralized or decentralized service?
View the documentCentralization vs decentralization in university library administration: some reflections
close this folder4.4 Self-management in the information service
View the documentCo-operation between libraries on the basis of the law on associated labour and the library activity and libraries act
close this folder5. The management of staff
close this folder5.1 Personnel administration
View the documentPersonnel administration in libraries
close this folder5.2 Human relations in personnel administration
View the documentHuman relations in administration
close this folder5.3 Career opportunities
View the documentCareer development of women librarians in New Zealand
View the documentWomen librarians and documentalists in Hungary
close this folder5.4 The job description
View the documentSystems personnel
close this folder5.5 Recruiting staff
View the documentRecruitment: filling the gap
close this folder5.6 Supervising staff
View the documentAn Overview of Supervision in Libraries Today
close this folder5.7 Training and developing staff
View the documentThe training function in libraries
close this folder5.8 Appraisal of staff
View the documentAnother look at performance appraisal in libraries
close this folder5.9 Technical and junior staff
View the documentLibrary technicians in Australia: past, present and future
View the documentTraining library assistants in Mauritius
close this folder5.10 Human problems in information work
View the documentStress, as experienced by some librarians
close this folder5.11 Participatory management
View the documentParticipative management and libraries
close this folder5.12 Workers' councils and trade unions
View the documentAn open forum for staff representatives
View the documentUnions and the public library
View the documentTrade unions and automation: a case study from Denmark
close this folder6. Management of financial and physical resources
close this folder6.1 Budgeting
View the documentPrinciples and methods of costing
close this folder6.2 Security
View the documentSecurity
View the documentDisasters: Can we plan for them? If not, how can we proceed?
close this folder6.3 The design of library and archive buildings
View the documentArchive Buildings and Equipment
View the documentThe open plan and flexibility
View the documentWhat space for the library? A discussion on the library building
close this folder7. Evaluation and change
close this folder7.1 Evaluating effectiveness
View the documentEvaluating the effectiveness of a library: a theoretical and methodological framework
View the documentOn evaluating the effectiveness of school libraries
View the documentConcepts of library goodness
close this folder7.2 Evaluation: specific examples
View the documentThe management study
View the documentA cost-analysis of cataloguing at the Universiti Sains Malaysia library for 1975
View the documentPerformance measures for public libraries



This book has been compiled for the benefit of the schools of library, archive and information science, for use in their courses on the management of information services and systems. It does not seek to replace the many standard textbooks on this subject which already exist, but is intended to supplement them. In particular, the book may be able to provide a more international perspective than many of the textbooks, which are mostly written with the information services of one particular country in mind.

The work takes the form of a collection of writings on the management aspects of libraries, archives and information units, writings which, we hope, will be of interest and use to both students and teachers. Its scope is wide, partly because the reader is avowedly international, and partly because of the nature of management.


The present book is a collaborative work. The editor submitted an outline plan of the work to Unesco in 1985, following guidelines suggested by the General Information Programme. Unesco then furnished the editor with a list of specialists in various parts of the world who were asked to suggest material which could go in the book. The editor selected appropriate items from the lists received and filled in any gaps with additional material. The contents of the work were then sent to the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), the Fration Internationale de Documentation (FID), and the International Council on Archives (ICA) for their comments. However the final choice of items selected for the reader was made by the editor, who takes full responsibility for the contents of the book.

The following types of material were sought in order to select items for this reader:

- books or articles addressed to an international readership (this category of material was thought to be particularly valuable, but little was available, apart from Unesco's own publications);

- authoritative works which are well regarded in the country of origin, and which talk about the subject in sufficiently general terms for it to be readily understandable to readers in another country;

- books or articles with a comparative element in them; for instance those discussing a management practice developed in one culture in terms of another;

- material which took the form of a discussion, where differing points of view were clearly presented in a lively way;

- articles or extracts from books which to the editor seemed to be clearly written, which used the language well, and which were free from allusions or other references which would mystify an international readership;

- case studies relating to a particular country, especially if it seemed that the implications were of more general interest.


One of the original intentions, when Unesco commissioned this work, was to draw out the common elements in information management, and to illustrate them with authoritative and interesting writings. Underlying this aim was the assumption that there were universal principles of management, which would be valid for all places and for all times.

However, the more one goes beyond a single country, or a single cultural area, the more difficult it is to discern these common principles. Some principles, certainly, are more widespread than others, but this seems to be because they are the product of influential or powerful countries or are thought to be well-suited to a particular social or economic structure.

Even if we were to accept that such universal principles do exist, the manner of their application varies widely. It is easy to understand why this is so: management practices reflect the social, cultural and economic patterns of the country: they cannot simply be transposed without modification from one country to another and be expected to work. The literature of library and information management confirms this variety. Nearly all of it is written from the point of view of one country, or perhaps a group of countries of similar cultural tradition.

One might imagine that since libraries, archives and information centres do similar sorts of things, then their management practices should also be similar. There is some truth in this, but less than one might think. Information units, libraries and archives are rarely independent units in their own right. They are normally part of larger organizations of many different types: state bureaucracies, local or provincial governments, public and private corporations, professional firms, learned societies, schools, universities, voluntary bodies, and so on. Management practices vary greatly between these different types of institution, and the libraries and information units take on the administrative colouring of the parent organization.


It may be difficult to discern any universal principles of management, and management practices may vary, but there is no doubt that librarians, documentalists and archivists share common management concerns. All over the world there is the same preoccupation with finance, staff, efficiency, communication, buildings, meeting users' needs, and so on.

This book, therefore, will present a selection of writings about common management concerns. It is a book to dip into. Not all articles will be relevant to all countries, and some have been chosen to illuminate particular management concerns felt by information professionals in particular countries. But the student will, we hope, be able to find a good deal of interest and value in these pages.

It draws on material from many countries, and attempts to be truly international. However neither the distinguished panel of advisers, still less the editor can be familiar with all the world's literature on this subject. In particular, contributions in oriental languages have had to be left on one side for linguistic reasons, and the very considerable literature from a number of other countries makes only a brief appearance in this pages.

The reader will probably find it helpful to browse through the commentary which follows to see what material will be most useful for his or her purpose. For technical reasons there is no index, but the annotations in the following pages serve as a reasonable guide to the contents of the book.


The editor would like to thank the following experts, nominated by Unesco, who kindly supplied lists of suitable material or made suggestions for the reader:

Madame L. Bachr (Rabat), Mrs Vicenta CortAlonso (Madrid), Dr Frank B. Evans (Washington), Mr Jaime Robredo (Brasilia), Dr Robert Steuart (Boston), Ms Rosa Vallejo (Manila), Mr C.K. Wambugu (Nairobi) and Dr Paul Wasserman (College Park, Maryland).

He is also grateful to the undermentioned people who helped him in various ways: by translating or evaluating certain material, or by supplying additional items:

Madame Gladys Adda (Tunis), Dr Leopold Auer (Wien), Ms Gertrud Erbach (London), Mrs Vera Gerudapest) Mrs M. Hines (London), Ms Aleksandra Horvat (Zagreb), Ms Hilda Kaune-Rivera (London), Mr Gr My (Budapest), Ms Greta Mole (Ware, England), Mrs Maria-Nieves Troubridge (London) and Mrs Eva Wade (London).

The editor would also like to thank the copyright owners of the material included in this reader for allowing the material to be reproduced and translated. Full details appear in the body of the book.

Finally, he is grateful to Monsieur Yves Courrier and Madame A. Schurek of Unesco's General Information Programme for much helpful advice.

Anthony Vaughan

October 1986.