Cover Image
close this bookEnvironmentally Sound Technologies for Women in Agriculture (IIRR, 1996, 213 p.)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
close this folderAnimal husbandry and dairying
View the documentSelection and breeding of cattle buffaloes
View the documentSelection and breeding of goats and sheep
View the documentSelection and breeding of swine
View the documentCommunity pasture management
View the documentCattle feeding
View the documentMake hay to preserve fodder
View the documentMake silage to preserve green fodder
View the documentImprove dry fodder by adding urea
View the documentUrea-molasses liquid mixture
View the documentUrea-molasses-mineral lick
View the documentClean milk production
View the documentLivestock diseases
View the documentCommon maladies in cattle
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View the documentAdaptation of livestock
close this folderVegetables and post-harvest technologies
View the documentNutrition garden
View the documentPreserving nutrients
View the documentPreservation by fermentation
View the documentZero-energy cool chamber
View the documentBamboo iceless refrigerator
close this folderOrganic farming
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View the documentCompost making
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View the documentBio-inoculants
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close this folderSeed production and storage
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentProduce your own wheat, rice and pulse seeds
View the documentStorage of grain and seed
View the documentSafe grain storage structures
View the documentImproved rodent-free grain storage
close this folderPests and pesticides
View the documentIntegrated pest management
View the documentNeem for plant protection
View the documentNeem oil as mosquito repellent
View the documentBiological control of malaria
View the documentNon-chemical methods of weed control
View the documentSafe use of pesticides
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View the documentPesticide facts and fiction
View the documentFirst-aid measures for pesticide poisoning
View the documentSave your crop from bird damage
View the documentBeekeeping
close this folderDrudgery reduction
View the documentDrudgery-reducing implements for farm women
View the documentFuel-efficient chulhas
View the documentSolar cookers
View the documentBiogas as a rural energy source
View the documentEfficient fuel energy utilisation
close this folderWater management for farm and home
View the documentSafe drinking water
View the documentMaintenance of community water sources
View the documentManagement of drinking water for the household
View the documentSome simple ways to purify drinking water
View the documentUse of indigenous plants for cleaning water
View the documentSoakage pit for proper disposal of waste water
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close this folderFish production
View the documentIntegrated fish farming
View the documentComposite fish culture
View the documentPaddy - fish culture
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View the documentHorticulture on dykes
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close this folderAppendices
View the documentGlossary of local terms
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View the documentImproved varieties of grasses and legumes in different regions
View the documentImproved varieties of vegetables for nutrition garden
View the documentWorkshop participants
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View the documentReferences

Fuel-efficient chulhas

Advantages of fuel efficient chulhas

- Use less fuel
- Reduce fuel collection time
- Reduce cooking time
- Produce less smoke
- Conserve trees
- Allow more dung to be used as fertilizer instead of fuel
- Provide work for local chulha makers

Millions of women in developing countries spend hours each day gathering fuel and still more hours feeding inefficient, smokey chulhas. These ovens harm women's health, add to women's work load, and contribute to deforestation. To combat this problem, many fuel-efficient ovens have been designed and promoted over the years. These improved chulhas all have something in common: they are scientifically designed for better heat flow, which means that maximum heat is taken from the fuel and directed at the cooking pots.


Many different models of improved chulhas are available:

- Pottery-lined mud chulha with or without chimney
- Portable metal chulha
- Portable ceramic-lined metal chulha
- Portable chulha with separate hood chimney
- Pottery-lined chulha without chimney

Portable metal chulha

Portable ceramic-lined metal chulha


Improved chulhas are installed by specially trained, selfemployed chulha makers. Customers are helped to choose the right chulha to meet their needs-depending on family size, kitchen location, type of fuel to be used. Normally, chimneys are recommended for closed, poorly ventilated areas.


Chulhas are normally made from locally available materials. But, depending on the chulha's size and design-whether the chulha includes a chimney pipe, smoke hood, ceramic or metal components-and taking into account installation charge and available subsidies, an improved chulha can cost from R15 to R150.

If you are interested in having a fuel-efficient improved chulha, contact the block development officer in your area.

Contributor: Mr. S. K. Jagwani