|School Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production (UNEVOC, 1998, 64 p.)|
|1. Key Issues and Hypotheses|
The data for the report has been collected mainly by way of interpreting available literature on school enterprises with a view to capturing differences that occur according to the optimal interlinking between learning and production, the different socio-economic contexts as well as differences in the emphasis on the pedagogical value of introducing productive enterprise.
The notion of school enterprises is not only a concern in less industrialised countries faced with high levels of underemployment, but also in more advanced countries. The case studies therefore provide international comparisons, as the link between education and production has been undertaken in many parts of the world and in situations that differ widely in terms of socio-cultural characteristics, political and ideological systems, and levels of development. The report pays attention to traditions and possibilities in developing countries, but also makes references to possibilities in Western States, guided by liberal pragmatic ideas to the introduction of work orientation in schools.
In order to make a proper evaluation of school-run enterprises, descriptions have been complemented by analysis. Here is a shortlist of indicators for the evaluation of school-run enterprises:
· What role is the incorporation of production in the educational context supposed to play?
· What are the modes of organising learning?
· What are the determinants of educational outcomes?
· How can the vocational training and educational system be carried out through co-operation with private industry and micro-enterprises in the informal sector?
· What is the role of different regulatory mechanisms?
· What are the factors for an optimal mix between involvement in real work processes and academic/ practical curriculum?
· What are the welfare effects of combining education with production?
· How can incentives be provided to teachers within the context of school enterprises?
· How are resources raised and what are they used for?
· How do graduates enter the labour market?
· How much public control or support should be introduced and, where public intervention is involved, how far responsibility and initiative may be decentralised?