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close this bookSchool Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production (UNEVOC, 1998, 64 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folder1. Key Issues and Hypotheses
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View the document1.1 Economic, educational and social objectives of school enterprises
View the document1.2 Need for case studies
View the document1.3 The conceptual framework
View the document1.4 Methodology
close this folder2. Case Studies
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View the document2.1 China
View the document2.2 India
View the document2.3 Indonesia
View the document2.4 Papua New Guinea
View the document2.5 Germany
View the document2.6 Botswana
View the document2.7 Kenya and Ghana
View the document2.8 Algeria
View the document2.9 Cuba and Costa Rica
close this folder3. Conclusions and Guidelines
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Rough typology of school enterprises
View the document3.2 Structures of school enterprises
View the document3.3 Organisation of learning
View the document3.4 Competency profile, learning outcomes and learning goals
View the document3.5 Curricular processes
View the document3.6 Teaching staff
View the document3.7 Regulatory framework of school enterprises
View the document3.8 External relations
View the document3.9 Impact of school enterprises
View the document3.10 Financial options for school enterprises
View the document3.11 Mixes of private and public roles
View the document3.12 Factors that may enhance school enterprises
View the documentBibliography

1.4 Methodology

The data for the report has been collected mainly by way of interpreting available literature on school enterprises with a view to capturing differences that occur according to the optimal interlinking between learning and production, the different socio-economic contexts as well as differences in the emphasis on the pedagogical value of introducing productive enterprise.

The notion of school enterprises is not only a concern in less industrialised countries faced with high levels of underemployment, but also in more advanced countries. The case studies therefore provide international comparisons, as the link between education and production has been undertaken in many parts of the world and in situations that differ widely in terms of socio-cultural characteristics, political and ideological systems, and levels of development. The report pays attention to traditions and possibilities in developing countries, but also makes references to possibilities in Western States, guided by liberal pragmatic ideas to the introduction of work orientation in schools.

In order to make a proper evaluation of school-run enterprises, descriptions have been complemented by analysis. Here is a shortlist of indicators for the evaluation of school-run enterprises:

· What role is the incorporation of production in the educational context supposed to play?

· What are the modes of organising learning?

· What are the determinants of educational outcomes?

· How can the vocational training and educational system be carried out through co-operation with private industry and micro-enterprises in the informal sector?

· What is the role of different regulatory mechanisms?

· What are the factors for an optimal mix between involvement in real work processes and academic/ practical curriculum?

· What are the welfare effects of combining education with production?

· How can incentives be provided to teachers within the context of school enterprises?

· How are resources raised and what are they used for?

· How do graduates enter the labour market?

· How much public control or support should be introduced and, where public intervention is involved, how far responsibility and initiative may be decentralised?