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close this bookThe Elaboration of School Textbooks - Methodological Guide (UNESCO, 1989, 66 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPREFACE
View the documentNOTE ABOUT THE AUTHOR
close this folderI. INTRODUCTION
View the documentTextbooks and educational achievements
View the documentProvision of school textbooks
View the documentProjects to develop the production of textbooks
close this folderConditions and Constraints on textbook production
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIdentification of needs
View the documentFinancial resources
View the documentElaboration of textbooks
View the documentPublishing
View the documentPrinting
View the documentDistribution
View the documentCirculation and marketing of school textbooks
View the documentThe decision to produce a textbook
close this folderFormulas and conditions for the elaboration of textbooks
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOriginal design
View the documentAdaptation of existing textbooks
View the documentTranslation
View the documentRights and protection of authors and translators
View the documentThe main categories of textbooks
View the documentThe roles of textbooks
View the documentThe objectives in using textbooks
View the documentTeacher Training
View the documentThose elaborating the textbook
View the documentThe author's contract
close this folderTextbooks and curricula
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTeachers guides and school textbooks
View the documentThe content of textbooks - origins
close this folderThe nature of content
View the documentAccuracy
View the documentPrecision
View the documentTopicality
View the documentObjectivity
View the documentContribution to social objectives
View the documentLearning experiences and development of aptitudes
View the documentProgression of concepts and development of abilities
View the documentInterdisciplinarity
close this folderEducational approaches
View the documentLevels of ability of pupils
View the documentInterests and motivation of pupils
View the documentStimulating an enquiring mind
View the documentLearning and evaluation exercises
View the documentSelf-evaluation
close this folderDrafting a manuscript
View the documentThe outline of the manuscript
View the documentStructure and organization of chapters
View the documentPresentation of chapters
View the documentThe text: language used in textbooks
View the documentVocabulary in textbooks
View the documentPhrases
View the documentPunctuation
View the documentThe thread, or continuous link
View the documentThe summary
View the documentWriting style
View the documentThe first and last pages of a manuscript
close this folderIV. ILLUSTRATIONS
View the documentThe role of illustrations
View the documentTypes of illustrations
View the documentCharacteristics and conditions of a good illustration
View the documentThe cost of illustrations
View the documentThe qualifications of illustrators
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderSchool Textbook Committees
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFunctions of Textbook Committees
View the documentStatus of the Committees
View the documentMembers of the Committees
View the documentWorking procedures
close this folderSubmission of manuscripts
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSubmission dates
close this folderTechnical guide-lines for presentation and composition of text
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCorrections in the text of the manuscript
View the documentPresentation of illustrations
close this folderThe final manuscript
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSubmission of the final manuscript
View the documentThe definitive manuscript
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAspects of evaluation
View the documentQuestions to be raised in the evaluation of a final manuscript
View the documentGuidelines for evaluation
View the documentThe evaluators
close this folderModalities and criteria for evaluation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEvaluation by teachers
close this folderThe trial edition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTesting
View the documentEvaluation
View the documentVII. CONCLUSION
View the documentREFERENCES


The preceding chapters have analysed and, hopefully, lead to a better understanding of the problems raised by the elaboration of textbooks, as well as suggesting or recommending approaches or solutions which could be applied to the preparation of manuscripts. The way in which their elaboration is managed from beginning to end now needs to be envisaged.

In developed countries, school textbook production is usually undertaken by governmental or private industrial enterprises with the long experience, skills and capacities required to estimate and cover needs for books at the national level. The intervention of educational authorities is more often than not limited to an evaluation of the merit of texts published and their relevance to official curricula. It is primarily those responsible for educational content and teachers who choose and recommend school textbooks.

In most of the least developed countries, where no real industry or largescale market for books has yet been established, Ministries of Education usually undertake production of textbooks and their provision to schools. General policy adopted as regards school textbooks can vary:

- a governmental service or agency under the auspices of the Ministry of Education (textbook publishing organizations, school book centres, or specialised institutes) is responsible for all production activities and book provision;

- publishing or printing or sometimes both is sub-contracted to private publishing organisations, the governmental agency being responsible for planning provision of textbooks, elaboration of manuscripts and distribution of books.

- private publishing organizations are responsible for printing and distribution, the Ministry of Education undertaking the planning and elaboration of manuscripts.

Each of these modalities corresponds to a specific situation in countries confronted with the need to solve the crucial problem of lack of textbooks. According to whether capacities exist within the private sector to undertake certain aspects of production and distribution, governments are lead to adopt the solutions which best coincide with the needs of their educational system. However, it would seem that overall responsibility for the totality of production and distribution activities by a state publishing organization is, for many countries, a difficult undertaking, given the considerable financial technical and material resources required. Moreover, this modality implies the intervention of several Ministries (education, finance, planning) which can lead to problems in coordinating the different services involved, slow progress in decision-making, difficulties in applying rigourous production schedules, with not very satisfactory results. It also assumes the existence of personnel specialised in all the various production activities or that training in these domains is available.