Irrigation Training Manual: Planning, Design, Operation and Management of SmallScale Irrigation Systems (Peace Corps, 1994, 151 p.) 
Training session 
Section 1: Introduction to irrigation principles and practices 

* The Role and Purpose of Irrigation
* Assessing
Trainee Math Skills
* Tool Use and Safety
* Exam: Section 1
(Math Skills Assessment)
Session Topic: The Role and Purpose of Irrigation
Session Goal: To enable Trainees to identify the need for irrigation and to describe their own training goals and expectations.
Session Objectives:
(1) Trainees will be able to define irrigation and describe the benefits of irrigation in the production of food and fiber.
(2) Trainees will be able to describe how irrigation is practiced in varying topographic, climatic, or social conditions.
(3) Trainees will identify their own expectations, goals, and objectives for the training.
Overview: This session should serve as the introduction to the training. Volunteers are provided with an overview of the purpose and means for applying irrigation practices in a variety of conditions. This session should be used by trainers to describe and show visually what irrigation is, what its benefits are, and the basic concepts that must be understood in order to do an irrigation project correctly. Trainees should also write down some of their own expectations, goals, and objectives for their service.
Session Activities:  
Time 

30 Min. 
Trainer has each person in the room select a partner. 

The partners pair off and obtain some basic background information about each other. Specifically, each person should take turns asking their partner: 

 area they are from in the U.S., 

 general work experience, educational training, and personal interests that might relate to the work they anticipate doing as a Peace Corps Volunteer, 

 background experience they may have in agriculture or irrigation, 

 motivation for joining Peace Corps, and 

 goals and expectations they have for the training. 
20 Min. 
The group will reconvene as a whole. Each person introduces his or her partner to the group and provides a brief summary of the partner's background and training goals and expectations. Trainer records goals and objectives on a flip chart, without reference to the individual person who has voiced them. 
10 Min. 
Trainer presents a simple and concise description of the role and purpose of smallscale irrigation in tropical agriculture. Trainer can show video from International Irrigation Center Module No. 1, which presents these concepts graphically. 
15 Min. 
Trainer concludes session by going over the training schedule in detail, referring back to the Trainees stated goals and objectives frequently and showing how the training sessions will attempt to meet them. 
Trainer Notes: Time allotments for this session will depend upon the number of Trainees in the group.
Materials Required:
* flip chart
* notebooks for Trainees
* video cassette
player
Selected References:
Chapter 1, Irrigation Reference Manual International Irrigation Center Module #1
Session Topic: Assessing Trainee Math Skills
Session Goal: To determine the specific mathematical skills that Trainees will need to acquire or improve to work in irrigation.
Session Objectives:
(1) Trainees will complete a selfdirected test of mathematical skills.
(2) Trainees will prepare a list of mathematical skills they intend to develop more fully or improve during the training program.
Overview: Volunteers who will be working with irrigation principles and practices must have the capacity to work confidently with basic algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. Many Trainees will have had limited mathematical training or will not have used math formulas for many years. This session, preferably presented at the beginning of the training, offers trainers and Trainees an opportunity to identify specific mathematical skills that Trainees will want to strengthen in order to increase their comprehension throughout the training.
Session Activities:  
Time 

10 Min. 
The trainer should distribute prepared handouts that include a comprehensive set of mathematical problems to be solved. The problem set should include numerous examples of the kinds of problems Volunteers can be expected to encounter in the field, and the problems should reflect appropriate characteristics of local conditions. The trainer will review the test questions with Trainees as a group and make conversion tables, calculators, and area/volume table available. 
30 Min. 
Trainees will work independently to answer each question on the handout. 
20 Min. 
The trainer will go through the problem set with the entire group, having the Trainees indicate the method(s) used to solve each problem. Trainees should selfcorrect their own problem set. Conclude the session by having each Trainee prepare a list of mathematical skills they will obtain or improve during the course of the training program. 
Trainer Notes: It will be important to emphasize to Trainees that this is not a pass/fail test but rather an indicator for each Trainee to identify personal needs to improve basic math skills. If Trainees are unable to solve even a single problem they are still fully entitled to participate in the training. They will want to allocate some personal time, however, to rapidly bring their math skills up to a level where they can accomplish many of the more demanding technical designs and computations required in upcoming sessions.
Materials Required:
* photocopied conversion tables
* photocopied problem
sets
* scientific calculators (one per Trainee)
Selected References:
Appendix A, Irrigation Reference Manual: Conversion Factors; Trigonometric Table
Session Topic: Tool Use and Safety
Session Goal: For Trainees to identify techniques for using typical tools and machinery properly and safely.
Session Objectives:
(1) To have Trainees identify and describe the proper function of the tools commonly used in irrigation projects.
(2) To list ways to care for and protect tools.
(3) To list safety tips for working with tools at construction sites.
Overview: Volunteers must assume some level of responsibility for their own safety and the safety of others with whom they will work in implementing construction projects. Developing and demonstrating the proper use of common tools is an essential component of this work.
Session Activities:  
Time 

10 Min. 
Begin session outside in a place where tool use can be easily demonstrated. Introduce objectives of session and ask Trainees to list common tools used for irrigation projects. Flush out list to include tools and equipment missed by Trainees and tell Trainees that list will be typed and distributed to them to include in their reference notebooks. 
20 Min. 
Trainer brings out tools for Trainees to inspect. A Trainee familiar with each tool is asked to demonstrate how the tool is properly used and safely cared for. 
20 Min. 
Trainees generate list of tool safety tips: 

 Don't leave tools scattered around work site. 

 Ensure personal protection (hands, face). 

 Check equipment before use to see if it has adequate strength and durability. (This is especially important when working with ropes, buckets, baskets, or lifting materials.) 

Trainees identify ways to care for tools: 

 practice proper storage, 

 define person responsible for tools, 

 clean tools after use, 

 replace or repair defective parts, 

 and learn how to use local materials where possible. 

Trainees list site safety tips: 

 know what other people around you are doing, 

 notice where tools are, 

 notice pits, holes, sharp edges, etc., 

 be aware of the power of tropical heat, and 

 know how to lift heavy objects. 
10 Min. 
Trainer concludes by reminding Trainees that they will be accountable for tool use and maintenance throughout the training. All lost tools must be replaced at Trainees expense. 
Trainer Notes: Trainers should refer to the List of Common Tools in Appendix A and identify those tools that are most appropriate for incountry conditions. These tools should be on hand at the training site and brought to this session.
Materials Required:
* flip chart
* handout of common tool list
* tools
selected from tool list in Appendix A
Selected References:
Appendix A, Irrigation Reference Manual: List of Common Tools
The following questions can assist Trainees to identify math skills that they might want to acquire or strengthen in order to work confidently with technical problem solving at their sites. The questions are intended to increase in complexity as one proceeds through the selfexamination. In presenting the skills assessment to Trainees, it is important to emphasize that this is not a passfail test but rather an opportunity for them to conduct a selfassessment of their own skill levels.
1. A storage tank holds 1.5 cubic meters of water.
 How many gallons is this?
 How many liters?
2. 3 cubic meters of gravel + 2 cubic meters of sand + 1 cubic meter of cement = 3 cubic meters of concrete. You will pour a concrete slab that measures 3 meters by 5 meters by 10 centimeters.
 Approximately how many cubic feet of concrete will you
need?
 How much gravel, sand, and cement (in meters) will you need?
3. You are planning to construct a concrete water storage tank. Each wall measures 2 meters high by 3 meters wide. You will need to purchase reinforcing bar to reinforce the walls. The bars are to be spaced 20 centimeters apart both horizontally and vertically.
 How many 2 meter lengths are needed? How many 3 meter lengths?
(for 4 walls)
 If reinforcing bar can only be purchased in 6 meter lengths,
how many bars will you need to purchase?
4. A hollow block measures 20 centimeters high and 40 centimeters wide. You want to build a retaining wall 2 meters high by 4 meters wide. Approximately how many blocks will you need, assuming none break in transport?
5. A truck carries 4 cubic meters of sand/gravel. You estimate that you will need 30 cubic feet of gravel and 100 cubic feet of sand. Can it bring you the sand and gravel in one trip?
6. 16 gallon wire sells by the kilo (one kilogram = 54 meters). A kilo sells for 20 pesos. You estimate that you will need 200 meters of wire. How much will it cost?
7. The flow from a spring is 8 liters per minute (Lpm). Assuming a constant rate, how many liters per hour and cubic meters per hour is this? How many gallons per hour?
8. Find the volume of this tank in cubic meters: inside depth = 5 m, outside walls = 6 m, wall thickness = 0.25 m.
How many liters of water will it hold?
9. The flow rate in a stream is estimated to be approximately 50 L/sec. or 180 m^{3} /hr. You want to divert the stream to irrigate 1 hectare (10,000 m^{2}) of pasture. The hay requires 10 cm (0.1 m) of water to be applied in an irrigation. How long will you need to maintain the diversion to fulfill these water requirements?
Bonus Question
10. After surveying, you find that the difference in elevation between a water source and an irrigation distribution canal is 30 meters. The horizontal distance from the water source to the canal is 120 meters. Approximately how long a length of pipe will be needed to run from the source to the canal, assuming the slope of the hill is constant?
Sample Completed Test
1. A storage tank holds 1.5 cubic meters of water.
 How many liters is this?
Answer: 1.5 m^{3} x 1000 liters/m^{3} = 1500 liters
 How many gallons is this?
Answer: 1500 liters/3.8 = 395 gallons
2. 3 cubic meters of gravel + 2 cubic meters of sand + 1 cubic meter of cement = 3 cubic meters of concrete. You will pour a concrete slab that measures 3 meters by 5 meters by 10 centimeters.
 Approximately how many cubic meters of concrete will you need?
Answer: 1.5 cubic meters x (3.28 ft/1 m)^{3} = 52.9 ft^{3}
 How much gravel, sand, and cement (in cubic meters) will you need (using the given ratio of 3:2:1)?
Answer: 1.5 m^{3} gravel, 1 m^{3} sand, 0.5 m^{3} cement
3. You are planning to construct a concrete water storage tank. Each wall measures 2 meters high by 3 meters wide. You will need to purchase reinforcing bar to reinforce the walls. The bars are to be spaced 20 centimeters apart both horizontally and vertically.
 How many 2 meter lengths are needed? How many 3 meter lengths? (for 4 walls)
Answer: 60 and 40 respectively
 If reinforcing bar can only be purchased in 6 meter lengths, how many bars will you need to purchase?
Answer: 40
4. A hollow block measures 20 centimeters high and 40 centimeters wide. You want to build a retaining wall 2 meters high by 4 meters wide. Approximately how many blocks will you need, assuming none break in transport?
Answer: Number of blocks = area of wall / area of individual blocks = (2 m x 4 m)/(0.2 m x 0.4 m) = 100 blocks
* Note: This assumes the mortar joints take up no space
5. A truck carries 4 cubic meters of sand/gravel. You estimate that you will need 30 cubic feet of gravel and 100 cubic feet of sand. Can it bring you the sand and gravel in one trip?
Answer: Volume of sand and gravel = 30 cubic feet + 100 cubic feet
130 cubic feet/35 cubic feet per cubic meter = 3.7 m^{3}; thus, yes.
6. 16 gauge wire sells by the kilo (one kilogram = 54 meters). A kilo sells for 20 pesos. You estimate that you will need 200 meters of wire. How much will it cost?
Answer: 200 m/54 m = 3.7 kg x 20 = 74 pesos
7. The flow from a spring is 8 liters per minute (Lpm). Assuming a constant rate, how many liters per hour and cubic meters per hour is this? How many gallons per hour?
Answer: 8 x 60 = 480, 480 liters/hr = 0.48
m^{3}/hr
480/3.8 = 126 gallons/hr
8. Find the volume of a tank in cubic meters if the inside depth is 5 meters and the lengths of the outside walls are 6 meters. Wall thickness is 0.25 meters.
 How many liters of water will it hold?
Answer: 5.5 x 5.5 x 5 = 151.25 m^{3} = 151,250 liters
9. The flow rate in a stream is estimated to be approximately 50 L/sec. or 180 m^{3} /fur. You want to divert the stream to irrigate 1 hectare (10,000 m^{2}) of pasture. The pasture requires 10 cm (0.1 m) of water to be applied in an irrigation. How long will you need to maintain the diversion to fulfill these water requirements?
Answer: Area x depth = flow rate x time
Time = (area x
depth)/flow rate
Time = (10,000 m^{2} x 0.1 m/180 m^{3} /fur)
= 5.6 hrs
Bonus Question
10. After surveying, you find that the difference in elevation between a water source and an irrigation distribution canal is 30 meters. The horizontal distance from the water source to the canal is 120 meters.
Approximately how long a length of pipe will be needed to run from the source to the canal, assuming the slope of the hill is constant?
Answer: (30)^{2} + (120)^{2} =
x^{2}
x^{2} = 900 + 14,400
x^{2} =
15,300
x^{2} = 123.7
meters