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close this bookIndustrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU, 1994, 376 pages)
close this folderPart 1: General implications
close this folder1. Industrial metabolism: Theory and policy
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View the documentWhat is industrial metabolism?
View the documentThe materials cycle
View the documentMeasures of industrial metabolism
View the documentPolicy implications of the industrial metabolism perspective
View the documentReferences


Ayres, Robert V. 1988. "Self Organization in Biology and Economics." International Journal on the Unity of the Sciences 1, no. 3.

Ayres, Robert U., and Allan V. Kneese. 1969. "Production, Consumption and Externalities." American Economic Review 59, no. 3: 282-296.

- 1989. 'Externalities: Economics and Thermodynamics." In: F. Archibugi and P. Nijkamp, eds., Economy and Ecology: Towards Sustainable Development. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas. 1971. The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Nriagu, J. O. 1990. "Global Metal Pollution." Environment 32, no. 7: 7-32.

Rogner, Hans-Holger. 1987. "Energy in the World: The Present Situation and Future Options." In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Refrigeration August 24-28, 1987.