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close this bookIndustrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU, 1994, 376 pages)
close this folderPart 2: Case-studies
close this folder6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe use of chromium and lead in Sweden
View the documentCalculation of emissions
View the documentThe development of emissions over time
View the documentThe emerging immission landscape
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences


Anderberg, S., B. Bergbäck, and U. Lohm. 1989. "Flow and Distribution of Chromium in the Swedish Environment: A New Approach to Studying Environmental Pollution." Ambio 18:216220.

- 1990 Pattern of Lead Emissions in Sweden 1880-1980. Report 13/90. Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate.

Ayres, R. U. 1978. Resources, Environment and Economics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ayres, R. U., and A. V. Kneese. 1969. "Production, Consumption and Externalities." American Economic Review 59, no. 3: 282-296.

Ayres, R. U., and S. Rod. 1986. "An Historical Reconstruction of Pollutant Levels in the Hudson-Raritan Basin." Environment 28:14-43.

Bergbäck, B. 1992. "Industrial Metabolism. The Emerging Immission Landscape of Heavy Metal Immission in Sweden." Dissertation. Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, no. 76.

Bergbäck, B., S. Anderberg, and U. Lohm. 1989. "A Reconstruction of Emissions, Flow and Accumulation of Chromium in Sweden 1920-1980." Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 48:391407.

- 1992. "Lead Load: The Historical Pattern of Lead Use in Sweden." Ambio 21.

Nriagu, J. O. 199(). "Global Metal Pollution. Poisoning the Biosphere." Environment 32:7-33.

Tarr, J. A., and R. U. Ayres, 1990. In: B. L. Turner et al., eds., The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 623.