|Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU, 1994, 376 pages)|
|Note to the reader from the UNU|
|Part 1: General implications|
|1. Industrial metabolism: Theory and policy|
|What is industrial metabolism?|
|The materials cycle|
|Measures of industrial metabolism|
|Policy implications of the industrial metabolism perspective|
|2. Ecosystem and the biosphere: Metaphors for human-induced material flows|
|The ecosystem analogue|
|The environmental spheres analogue: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere|
|Summary and conclusions|
|3. Industrial restructuring in industrial countries|
|Identifying indicators of environmentally relevant structural change|
|Structural change as environmental relief|
|Environmentally relevant structural change: Empirical analysis|
|Typology of environmentally relevant structural change|
|4. Industrial restructuring in developing countries: The case of India|
|Industrial metabolism and sustainable development|
|Industry and sustainable development|
|Energy efficiency: An overview|
|Energy use in Indian industry: A case-study|
|5. Evolution, sustainability, and industrial metabolism|
|Technical progress and reductionism|
|The mechanical paradigm|
|The evolution of ecological structure|
|Part 2: Case-studies|
|6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980|
|The use of chromium and lead in Sweden|
|Calculation of emissions|
|The development of emissions over time|
|The emerging immission landscape|
|7. Industrial metabolism at the regional level: The Rhine Basin|
|Geographic features of the Rhine basin|
|The example of cadmium|
|8. Industrial metabolism at the regional and local level: A case-study on a Swiss region|
|9. A historical reconstruction of carbon monoxide and methane emissions in the United States, 1880-1980|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)|
|10. Sulphur and nitrogen emission trends for the United States: An application of the materials flow approach|
|Nitrogen oxides emissions|
|11. Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United States, 1880-1980|
|Production-related heavy metal emissions|
|Emissions coefficients for production|
|Consumption-related heavy metal emissions|
|Emissions coefficient for consumption|
|Historical usage patterns|
|Part 3: Further implications|
|12. The precaution principle in environmental management|
|Precaution and "industrial metabolism"|
|Precaution: A case-study|
|History of the precaution principle|
|The precaution principle in international agreements|
|Precaution on the European stage|
|Precaution as a science-politics game|
|Precaution on the global stage|
|13. Transfer of clean(er) technologies to developing countries|
|Environmentally sound technology, clean(er) technology|
|Knowledge and technology transfer|
|Crucial elements of endogenous capacity-building|
|International cooperation for clean(er) technologies|
|14. A plethora of paradigms: Outlining an information system on physical exchanges between the economy and nature|
|Distinguishing between "harmful" and "harmless" characteristics of socio-economic metabolism with its natural environment|
|Outline of an information system for the metabolism of the socio-economic system with its natural environment|
|An empirical example for ESIs: Material balances and intensities for the Austrian economy|
|Purposive interventions into life processes (PILs)|
Peter M. Allen, B.Sc., Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics. Director of the International Ecotechnology Research Centre, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford, United Kingdom.
Stefan Anderberg, B.Sc. in Human Geography. Research Scholar, Project on Sources of Chemical Pollution in the Rhine Basin, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Leslie W. Ayres, B.A., Bennington College. Computer Consultant, Fontainebleau, France.
Robert U. Ayres, B.Sc., B.A., M.A., Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics. Sandoz Professor of Environmental Management, INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France.
Peter Baccini, Dr. sc. nat., Professor and Head of the Department of Waste Management and Metabolism at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Bo Bergbäck, Ph.D. in Environmental Studies. Researcher and Lecturer, University College of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.
Paul H. Brunner, Dr. sc. nat., Chemistry, Environmental Engineering and Waste Management/Materials Management. Professor of Waste Management, Technical University, Vienna, Austria.
Mala Damodaran, M.A. in Business Economics. Research Associate at the Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
Himra, Dang, M.E. in Engineering Management. At present doing consultancy work as an environmental scientist, New Delhi, India.
Hans Daxbeck, Mag. soc. oec. publ. Fellow of the Department of Waste Management and Metabolism at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Ph.D. in Sociology. Assistant Professor, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and Continuing Education, Vienna, Austria.
Helmut Haberl, M.Sc. in Biology and Mathematics. Head of the Department of Energy at the Ecology Institute, Vienna, Austria.
Rudolf B. Husar, Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering. Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis, Washington University, St. Louis, United States.
Ulrik Lohm, M.A., Ph.D. in Entomology. Head of the Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Rüdiger Olbrich. Student of Environmental Engineering at the Technical University of Berlin, Assistant at the Science Center Berlin, Germany.
Timothy O'Riordan. Professor of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia; Associate Director, Centre for Social and Economic Research into Global Environment, University of East Anglia and University College, London, United Kingdom.
Rajendra K. Pachauri, Ph.D. in Economics and Industrial Engineering. Director of the Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
Harald Payer, M.A. in Economics. Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and Continuing Education, and Department of Social Ecology at the Ecology Institute, Vienna, Austria.
Udo E. Simonis, M.A., Ph.D. in Economics. Professor of Environmental Policy at the Science Center Berlin, and Member of the German Council on Global Environmental Change, Berlin, Germany.
William M. Stigliani, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. in Chemistry. Senior Research Fellow, Leader of the Project on Sources of Chemical Pollution in the Rhine Basin, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Joel A. Tarr, B.Sc., M.A., Ph.D. in History. Professor of Urban Studies at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, United States.
Sergio C. Trindade, M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering. President of SE2T International Ltd., an energy, environmental, and technology consultancy, Scarsdale, United States.