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close this bookWater Supply: Water Supply, Wastewater, Irrigation - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 7 (NORAD, 1994)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPart I: General account
close this folder1 Characteristics of projects within water supply, wastewater-management and irrigation
View the document1.1 Introduction
View the document1.2 Management of water resources
View the document1.3 Project types within water supply, wastewater management, sanitation and irrigation
close this folder2 The environment affected by the project
View the document2.1 The hydrological cycle
View the document2.2 Characteristics of soil types, climate and various water resources
View the document2.3 Socio-cultural conditions
close this folder3 Possible environ mental impacts
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Excessive exploitation of the water resources
View the document3.2 Pollution problems
View the document3.3 Water-related health problems
View the document3.4 Erosion
View the document3.5 Specific impacts of regulation and construction of dams
View the document3.6 Specific impacts of irrigation
View the document3.7 Impacts for ecosystems, natural- and cultural landscapes and cultural relics
View the document3.8 User conflicts and other impacts for the community
View the document4 Relevant literature
close this folderPart II: Documentation requirements for initial environmental assessment
View the document1 Project description
View the document2 Description of the environment
View the document3 Checklist
View the documentWill the project


The natural resource base in our world today is exposed to constantly increasing pressures. Environmental problems are on the increase in developing countries as well as in developed countries. In developing countries, ecological stress strikes large and vulnerable population groups, and hinders social and economic development in many areas.

In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development, in their report "Our Common Future", described the problems we are facing, and the measures which must be taken to solve them.

Environmental problems in the developing countries makes demand on Norwegian development aid. Four Norwegian White Paper Nos. 36 (1985-85),34 (1986-87) and 51 (1991-92) on major questions concerning Norwegian aid to developing countries, and No. 46 (1988-89) on Norway's follow-up of the recommendations of the World Commission, have stressed the importance of taking environmental issues into account in Norwegian assisted development aid projects. In 1990 this was further articulated in the NORAD strategy paper "NORAD in the nineties". In the NORAD strategy document Part II "Strategies for bilateral aid" (1992) it is determined that all ongoing and planned development aid projects must be assessed with regard to environmental impacts.

This booklet has been compiled to help NORAD desk officers and planners to integrate environmental considerations into projects within water supply, wastewater management, and irrigation at an early stage in the planning process. It is one of a series of booklets presenting guidelines for environmental impact assessment (EIA) of various types of development projects. Experience and ideas from corresponding material compiled by other countries (OECD, the World Bank) have been integrated in this EIA-system.