Cover Image
close this book Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use
close this folder Appendixes
View the document Appendix A: Useful measurements and conversions
View the document Appendix B: How to determine soil moisture content
View the document Appendix C: Spacing guide for contour ditches and other erosion barriers*
View the document Appendix D: Composition of common chemical fertilizers
View the document Appendix E: Hunger signs in common crops
View the document Appendix F: Legumes for green manuring and cover-cropping in tropical and subtropical regions
View the document Appendix G: Some sources of technical support
View the document Appendix H: A bibliography of useful references

Appendix G: Some sources of technical support

• The International Agricultural Research Institutes

• Private and Voluntary Organizations (PVO's)


In the early 1960's, the growing realities of the world food problem helped stimulate worldwide interest in the agricultural and nutritional dilemma faced by the developing countries. There are now some 9 major international research institutes dealing with food crops in developing countries and 2 dealing mainly with livestock. Most of them were initially sponsored by international foundations like Ford, Rockefeller, and Kellogg. However, in 1971 the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was formed to provide broad-based financial support for the institutes. The CGIAR is jointly sponsored by the Food and Agric. Org. (FAO), the International Bank for Reconstruction and Developuent (IBRD), and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Role of the International Institutes

• To undertake multidisciplinary, field-oriented research for developing yield-increasing technologies.

• To cooperate with appropriate national crop and livestock improvement programs in the developing countries; this includes training programs, providing new varieties for field testing, and supplying professional personnel.

• To collect and preserve crop and livestock genetic material vital for the development of improved varieties and stock.

• To provide training programs for agricultural personnel from developing countries.

Due to the many variations in soils, climate, and pests, etc., the development of suitable improved technologies is a very location-specific endeavor that requires adaptive research on a region-by-region basis within each country. Unfortunately, such country-sponsored efforts tend to be the weak link in the system, because they are often underfinanced and understaffed.

How to Utilize the International Institutes

Some suggestions:

• Your first contact should be to request the institute's brochure describing its activities. Also request a catalog of their publications. These institutes are one of the best sources of up-to-date research and production information. Some excellent troubleshooting guides are available for specific crops like maize (CIMMYT), millet/ sorghum (ICRISAT), rice (IRRI), and beans/cassava (CIAT). (Some of these are available through PC/ICE; refer to Appendix H.)

• The institutes are not set up to respond to general queries regarding appropriate production information for your specific area. They operate with a limited staff.

• Check with your Ministry of Agriculture to see what cooperative research efforts are being conducted in your country with the help of the international institutes.

• Most of the institutes offer short and long-term training courses which might be of great value to research and extension personnel in your area. Perhaps you could help a host country extension worker or technician obtain a scholarship or government grant for such training.

Major International Research Institutes

Funded by CGIAR

CIAT: The International Center for Tropical Agriculture focuses on beans, cassava, maize, rice, and tropical pastures. Address: Apartado Aereo 6713, Cali, COLOMBIA, S.A.

CIMMYT: The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Address: Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico, D.F.

CIP: The International Potato Center is conducting innovative research in potato breeding, storage, alternative propagation practices (i.e. other than using seed pieces), warm weather adaptation, and other areas. Address: CIP, Apartado 5969, Lima, PERU, S.A.

ICARDA: The International Center for Agric. Research in Dry Areas focuses on chickpeas, pigeonpeas, and other arid land crops. Address: P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, SYRIA.

ICRISAT: The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, focuses on millet, sorghum, peanuts, chickpeas, peanuts, and pigeonpeas. It has recently established a Sahelian center in Niger, West Africa for work on millet and peanuts. Address: Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, 502-324, INDIA.

IITA: The International Institute for Tropical Agriculture focuses on maize, pulses, rice, and root and tuber crops. Address: P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, NIGERIA.

ILCA: The International Livestock Center for Africa works mainly in the area of integrating Livestock and crop production, and also does breeding work. Address: P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA.

ILRAD: The International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases focuses on the eradication of trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and theileriosis. Address: P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya.

IRRI: The International Rice Research Institute developed the first high-yielding, semidwarf rice varieties back in the 1960's. Now it's focusing on developing types that need fewer production inputs. Address: P.O. Box 933, Manila, PHILIPPINES.

WARDA: The West Africa Rice Development Association works to promote rice selfsufficiency in 15 countries in West Africa. Address: P.O. Box 1019, Monrovia, LIBERIA.

Non-CGIAR Supported International Research Centers

AVRDC: The Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center focuses on tomatoes, Chinese cabbage, peppers, sweet potatoes, soybeans, and mungbeans. Address: P.O. Box 42, Shanua, Tainan, 741, TAIWAN, Republic of China.

ICRAF: The International Council for Research on Agroforestry. Address: P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya.

IRIWB: The International Research Institute for Winged Beans, recently established in Sri Lanka. Address unavailable.

NFTA: The Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association promotes the use of N-fixing trees for Third World small farmers for the purpose of green manure, erosion control, firewood, and timber. Annual membership is U.S. $10 (developed countries and U.S. $5 (Third World). Members receive 2 research journals ("Leucaena Research Reports" and "Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports"), 6-10 "NFTA

Highlights" (focusing on tree species), and 2 issues of "NFTA News". Other publications include "Leucaena Wood Manual" and "Leucaena Forage Manual". Address: NFTA, P.O. Box 680, Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA 96795. Tel. (808) 259-8685.

WINROCK INTERNATIONAL: Created in 1985 through a merger of the Internat. Agric. Devel. Service, the Winrock Internat. Livestock Research and Training Ctr., and the Agric. Development Council. It is involved in crop and livestock research/extension programs throughout the Third World. Headquarters address: Route 3, Morrilton, AR 72110, USA; Washington address: Rosslyn Plaza, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA, USA 22209.


Several PVO's provide unusually good technical support services for grass-roots agricultural development efforts.

ECHO: The Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization, Inc. is a non-denominational Christian organization that works with ag missionaries and other ag development workers. ECHO actively promotes grass-roots ag experimentation and technical networking. It publishes Echo Development Notes (EDN) at least quarterly, which provides very relevant technical information on small farmer crop and livestock production. EDN also serves as a valuable technical information clearinghouse and informs readers of useful references and sources of technical support. EDN is sent to Peace Corps country offices; for others involved in Third World ag development, a subscription is free. A set of back issues since 1981 costs $10, postage paid and is well worth it. ECHO also maintains a seedbank and will send small trial packets. It welcomes visitors at its experimental/demo farm. ECHO intends to develop auto-tutorial ag training materials. Address: ECHO, RR #2, Box 852, North Ft. Meyers, FL 33903, USA; telephone (813)543-3246.

VITA: Volunteers in International Technical Assistance is a private, nonprofit, international development organization that provides a number of informational and technical services (by mail and through on-site consulting) that promote self-sufficiency. VITA's main areas of focus are agriculture, food processing, renewable energy, water supply and sanitation, housing, construction, and small business development. It also publishes a quarterly magazine and a variety technical papers, manuals, and bulletins. Address: VITA, 1815 N. Lynn St., Suite 200, Arlington, VA 22209, USA.

WORLD NEIGHBORS: A non-sectarian, international development organization that promotes grass-roots, self-help initiatives utilizing local leaders and local volunteers. They have developed an impressive collection of books, manuals, filmstrips, and flipcharts on agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, and community development; these materials are available in English, French, and Spanish and are designed especially for comprehension by villagers in the Third World. World Neighbors produces 2 newsletters: 1) World Neighbors in in Action, a quarterly how-to-do-it newsletter for $5 a year (airmail postage); 2) Soundings from Around the World, a twice-yearly communications exchange newsletter that reviews World Neighbors' development materials. A catalog of their materials is available on request. Address: World Neighbors, 5116 North Portland Ave., Oklahoma City, OK 73112, USA; telephone (405)946-3333.